In particular, when we measure top wealth shares after constraining SCF totals to match FA aggregates and adjusting the number of families in the top

fractile to be consistent with tax unit counts, most of the recent level differences are eliminated, or at least are brought within the range of SCF statistical confidence.

16 above), since a measure of the distance between highest and lowest incomes tells us nothing about economic inequalities between other

fractiles of the population.

Therefore, in Figures 2 and 3, we plot changes in average tax rates for income quintiles and

fractiles of the top 1% comparing the actual change (left panel) with the counterfactual scenario of constant pretax incomes (right panel), respectively.

Integrated traffic load models describe the disadvantageous loading situation, taking into account the distance between the axes with the 5% lower and the 95% upper

fractile of distribution.

alpha]] (M - K) (the upper a

fractile of [chi square](M - K)) to decrease the false detection probability to a very low level of a, such as 0.

These cost-overrun percentage

fractiles and the PM-assessed distribution

fractile, i.

Then, we compute a monthly value-weighted buy-and-hold return for each of the 125

fractile portfolios.

20] is 20%

fractile of strength property under normal temperature; [k.

By using the known critical

fractile of the newsvendor model (see, for instance, Chopra & Meindl, 2004) and the inverse cumulative distribution function of the demand [[PSI].

It should be noted that the risk of hearing handicap due to noise calculated by this method does not indicate the severity of the hearing handicap as such, but gives the

fractile of a population whose hearing threshold level associated with age and noise exceeds the fence.

Lindsey's (1987) approach assumes taxpayers remain in the same income

fractile in successive periods.

This two sided test is of interest as it allows to discriminate between d > 0 and: d < 0 if the t statistic is in the lower

fractile of the standardized normal distribution, the series exhibits long-memory whilst if the series is in the upper

fractile of that distribution, the series is antipersistent.