founder effect

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Related to Founder event: Founder principle, Founder population

found·er ef·fect

an unusually high frequency of a gene in a particular population derived from a small set of unrepresentative ancestors.
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founder effect

n.
A random difference in allele frequencies of a population founded by a small group of organisms relative to the allele frequencies in the original population.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

founder effect

the result of starting a new population with a low number of individuals (founders), so that their GENE POOL may not contain the same proportions of ALLELES for a particular LOCUS as in the original population. For example, instead of containing three alleles of the ABO BLOOD GROUP locus, Australian aborigines contain no B alleles and thus no Group B or Group AB individuals are produced, a situation probably caused by a ‘founder effect’. Such small founder populations are subject to RANDOM GENETIC DRIFT.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Some proponents of founder effect speciation models hypothesized that a period of dramatic population growth must follow the founder event, in part to prevent further loss of additive genetic variance (Carson 1968, 1982; Templeton 1980a,b; Carson and Templeton 1984).
Consider now a founder event that would lead to fixation of an allele at this major locus, thereby instantly converting almost all epistatic interactions of other loci with this major locus into additive genetic variance.
We draw attention to the difference between the situation we studied and the situation usually modeled to explore the genetic consequences of founder events. The island is not remote, and there is no shortage of immigrants.
Population bottlenecks or founder events probably occur in almost all species at some times; however, there is a wide range of local population-size variation among species, and very little data about population sizes during bottlenecks (for references, see Whitlock 1992).
An extension of this line of reasoning holds that brief but intense periods of genetic drift, such as founder events, might allow sufficient genetic change to cause reproductive isolation and speciation (Mayr 1954, 1963; Carson 1975; Templeton 1979, 1980; Carson and Templeton 1984).
The effect of successive founder events on mating propensity of Drosophila, pp.
To measure the strength of different founder events, Reich and Thangaraj's team looked for long stretches of DNA shared between individuals from the same subgroups.
Whether recolonization occurred through multiple founder events or via small, surviving populations, the occurrence of H.
On the effect of founder events on the epistatic genetic variance.
Natural populations of many organisms experience "bottlenecks," periodic reductions in the numbers of breeding adults (Powell 1978; Carson and Templeton 1984; McCauley 1989; Whitlock 1992a): "Founder events" in the colonization of island, marginal, or novel habitats can result in a temporary reduction in the numbers of breeding adults (e.g., Mayr 1942; Carson 1975; Powell 1978; Templeton 1980; Carson and Templeton 1984; Dodd and Powell 1985; Wade and McCauley 1988; Dodd 1989; McCauley 1989; Whitlock and McCauley 1990; Whitlock 1992a).
A computer model of speciation by founder events. Genet.