founder effect


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found·er ef·fect

an unusually high frequency of a gene in a particular population derived from a small set of unrepresentative ancestors.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

founder effect

n.
A random difference in allele frequencies of a population founded by a small group of organisms relative to the allele frequencies in the original population.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

founder effect

the result of starting a new population with a low number of individuals (founders), so that their GENE POOL may not contain the same proportions of ALLELES for a particular LOCUS as in the original population. For example, instead of containing three alleles of the ABO BLOOD GROUP locus, Australian aborigines contain no B alleles and thus no Group B or Group AB individuals are produced, a situation probably caused by a ‘founder effect’. Such small founder populations are subject to RANDOM GENETIC DRIFT.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The founder effect is mainly revealed by spatial variation in allelic frequency at the Aat-1 locus.
Stochastic effects can be recognized because founder effect and genetic drift in small populations produce a characteristic pattern of morph-frequency variation and morph loss (Heuch 1980; Barrett et al.
Individuals of coloured ethnicity appear more likely to be affected with SCA1, possibly due to their two originating founder effects. White individuals are positive for all 5 types of polyglutamine SCA, with most individuals testing positive for SCA1.
Some proponents of founder effect speciation models hypothesized that a period of dramatic population growth must follow the founder event, in part to prevent further loss of additive genetic variance (Carson 1968, 1982; Templeton 1980a,b; Carson and Templeton 1984).
The founder effect theory: Quantitative variation and the MDG-1 mobile element polymorphism in experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster.
The founder effects permitted 94% identification in Indians and 62% in whites.
In contrast, species of Tetramolopium have much lower levels of genetic variability (Table 3), possibly as a result of founder effect (Lowrey and Crawford 1985).
The lower heterozygosities of P1 and P2 might be a consequence of founder effects and population bottlenecks while these populations were kept in the laboratory.
The founder effect and response to artificial selection in Drosophila.
Consequently, not only does the east to west colonization of the islands match their east to west origin, no island is hypothesized to be colonized before its origin, even though the founder effect (DeSalle and Templeton 1988) may cause an overestimation of divergence time.
72) observed -- correctly, I think -- that "some version of Mayr's founder effect and genetic revolution has been the favored explanation for at least island speciation since 1954." Since the mid-1980s, many questions of speciation, some of them tractable, have been neglected in favor of seemingly endless debates about this process.
234fD, and that population bottlenecks would contribute to this, he introduced the term "founder effect" for the special case of reduced variation in a colony established by few individuals.