This guide on formative assessment
focuses on classroom-level practices that affect student learning and achievement, build capacity, and foster schoolwide outcomes that can meet the demands for high-stakes accountability.
Now in a fully updated and expanded second edition, "Advancing Formative Assessment
in Every Classroom: A Guide for Instructional Leaders" is a practical and effective guide for school leaders that defines formative assessment
as an active, continual process in which teachers and students work together (every day, every minute) to gather evidence of learning, always keeping in mind three guiding questions: Where am I going?
has been likened to a checkup at the doctor's office, where summative assessment (such as a final examination) is more like an autopsy, At a checkup a patient can have a conversation about what is and isn't going well, and the doctor can suggest changes to diet, medications, and lifestyle that can take effect before it is too late.
provides feedback to the students and teachers over the course of instruction.4 Formative assessment
is a systemic intervention that is administered during the academic session in a relaxing non-threatening environment to improve the learning and achievements of the students in various ways; by making the students aware of the gap between their existing and expected knowledge levels, by familiarizing them with the end of session summative assessment, and by guiding them to improve their learning process and skills.5
Ppoor results by students in summative assessment show that there were no proper formative assessments
during studies in the entire academic session and then directly a summative assessment.
also known as assessment for learning, is a major source for improvement of students' learning (Clark, 2010; Eyal, 2012; Johannesen, 2013).
There are a number of formative assessment
Low stakes assessment can comprise of the class tests with major emphasis on formative assessment
i.e giving students timely and detailed qualitative feedback whereas Mid stakes assessments can be taken in the middle and towards the end of the academic year comprising of larger content from the syllabus.
In general, there is sufficient research on formative assessment
to support learning simple tasks in wellstructured domains with outcomes targeted at simple concepts and procedures.
Inevitably, formative assessment
is associated with summative assessment (Fernandes, 2017), since formative assessment
have important purposes if taken on regular basis.
Carolyn Mitten, Tim Jacobbe and Elizabeth Jacobbe, from the USA, demonstrate how primary teachers adapted three different apps to facilitate formative assessment
in their classrooms.