It is hypothesized that prescribed burning south Texas rangelands during the growing season will result in enhanced germination and establishment of annual and perennial forbs
and decreases of perennial grasses.
In the dry meadow, forbs
were separated into mycorrhizal species, nonmycorrhizal species, and [N.sub.2]-fixing species, since nonmycorrhizal and [N.sub.2]-fixing species are often more P-limited than are mycorrhizal species that do not fix [N.sub.2] (Appendix A).
Subdominant vegetation includes a diverse mix of forbs
, cool-season [C.sub.3] grasses, and a few woody species.
Tree cover was high at 78 %, Forbs
at 11.35 %, Grass 7.94 % and Shrubs and Dwarf Shrubs were both 1 %.
Our specific objectives were to determine composition, cover, and abundance of forbs
and browse within habitats; to identify characteristics influencing production of foods of value to mule deer; and to assess ability of habitats to provide foraging needs of mule deer.
The cover by different plant life forms (forbs
, shrubs, or graminoids) was determined by summing covers of plant species belonging to each category within the quadrats and then calculating the mean value for each habitat type.
At the planned rate and timing of application, the herbicide will have minimal impact on desirable grasses and forbs
. Since the herbicide is applied in pellet form, it will not drift from treated areas.
In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of herbage was significantly higher (P<0.001) at Basel and Burawai followed by Gittidas and Jalkhad showing higher value for shrubs (67.1%) than forbs
(56.2%) and grasses (54.2%) which was significantly affected (P<0.01) by location x herb interactions.
Pronghorn selectively feed on a variety of forbs
and shrubs, with grasses and grass-like plants (graminoids) typically comprising a minor portion of their diet (Yoakum 2004b).
All plants are listed in Appendix 2, along with C-value, physiognomy (tree, fern, perennial forb
, etc.), and the year and date first seen.
As patches transition from being recently burned and heavily grazed to not having burned for an extended period of time and being minimally grazed, the biomass of forbs
can increase for a period of time before decreasing (Fuhlendorf and Engle, 2004; Winter et al., 2012); this unimodal response of forbs
is presumably a function of their interaction with graminoids whereby the competitive ability of graminoids is altered by the level of grazing they are experiencing (Fahnestock and Knapp, 1993, 1994; Damhoureyeh and Hartnett, 1997; Fuhlendorf and Engle, 2001; Winter et al., 2013).
vaseyana) with an understory of perennial grasses and forbs
and scattered western juniper.