folinic acid

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Related to Folinic: leucovorin, Calcium levofolinate

folinic acid

 [fo-lin´ik]
the 5-formyl derivative of tetrahydrofolic acid, a metabolically active derivative of folic acid used to treat folic acid deficiencies and as an antidote to folic acid antagonists. Called also citrovorum factor and leucovorin.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

leucovorin calcium (citrovorum factor, folinic acid)

Calcium Folinate (UK), Lederfolin (UK), Refolinon (UK)

Pharmacologic class: Water-soluble vitamin

Therapeutic class: Vitamin, antidote to folic acid antagonist, antianemic, antineoplastic adjunct

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Counteracts therapeutic and toxic effects of folic acid antagonists; may enhance therapeutic and toxic effects of fluoropyrimidines used in cancer therapy. Also supplements folic acid in folic acid deficiency.

Availability

Injection (expressed as base): 10 mg/vial, 50 mg/vial, 100 mg/vial, 200 mg/vial, 350 mg/vial, 500 mg/vial

Injection, preservative-free (expressed as base): 10 mg/vial, 50 mg/vial, 200 mg/vial, 350 mg/vial, 500 mg/vial

Tablets: 5 mg, 15 mg, 25 mg

Indications and dosages

Leucovorin rescue after high-dose methotrexate therapy

Adults: 15 mg (approximately 10 mg/m2) P.O., I.M., or I.V. q 6 hours, starting 24 hours after methotrexate infusion begins and continuing until serum methotrexate level drops below 10-8 M. If 24-hour serum creatinine level rises 50% over baseline or if 24-hour methotrexate level exceeds 5 × 10-6 M or 48-hour level exceeds 9 × 10-7 M, increase leucovorin dosage to 100 mg/m2 I.V. q 3 hours and continue hydration and urinary alkalization until methotrexate level drops below 10-8 M.

To reduce toxicity and counteract effects of impaired methotrexate elimination or inadvertent overdose of folic acid antagonist

Adults: 15 mg (roughly 10 mg/m2) I.M., I.V., or P.O. q 6 hours until serum methotrexate level drops below 10-8 M. If 24-hour serum creatinine level rises 50% over baseline or if 24-hour methotrexate level exceeds 5 × 10-6 M or 48-hour level exceeds 9 × 10-7 M, increase leucovorin dosage to 100 mg/m2 I.V. q 3 hours and continue hydration and urinary alkalization until methotrexate level drops below 10-8 M.

Advanced colorectal cancer

Adults: Usually given in one of the following regimens: 200 mg/m2 slow I.V. injection over at least 3 minutes, followed by I.V. injection of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); or 20 mg/m2 I.V. injection, followed by I.V. injection of 5-FU. Treatment is repeated daily for 5 days, and may then be repeated at 28-day intervals for two courses and then at 4- to 5-week intervals, as prescribed.

Megaloblastic anemia secondary to folic acid deficiency

Adults: Up to 1 mg I.M. daily

Dosage adjustment

• In leucovorin rescue after high-dose methotrexate therapy: delayed early or late methotrexate elimination (serum methotrexate level still above 0.2 µM at 72 hours and above 0.05 µM [5 × 10-8] at 96 hours after administration)

• Evidence of acute renal injury

Contraindications

• Treatment of pernicious anemia and other megaloblastic anemias caused by vitamin B12 deficiency

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• anemia (when vitamin B12 deficiency has been ruled out)

• patients receiving 5-FU concomitantly

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children.

Administration

Recheck leucovorin dosage in current published protocols before giving as methotrexate rescue.

• Give parenterally in patients with GI toxicity, nausea, or vomiting.

• Reconstitute leucovorin injection with sterile or bacteriostatic water for injection containing benzyl alcohol. (When giving with 5-FU for colorectal cancer in dosages above 10 mg/m2, reconstitute only with sterile water for injection.)

Don't mix leucovorin injection with 5-FU, because precipitation will occur.

Give I.V. leucovorin slowly (no faster than 160 mg/minute) because of calcium content. Large doses may be infused over 1 to 6 hours as directed.

Don't give intrathecally; drug may be harmful or fatal by this route.

• Be aware that P.O. dosages above 25 mg are not recommended.

Adverse reactions

Skin: urticaria

Other: allergic sensitization reactions, anaphylactoid reactions

Interactions

Drug-drug. 5-FU: enhanced fluorouracil toxicity

Methotrexate, other folic acid antagonists: negated therapeutic and toxic effects of these drugs

Phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone: negated anticonvulsant effect, increased frequency of seizures in susceptible children

Patient monitoring

Monitor serum creatinine and methotrexate levels every 24 hours.

Monitor closely for adverse reactions. Continue leucovorin therapy, hydration, and urinary alkalization until serum methotrexate level drops below 10-8 M.

Monitor CBC with white cell differential and platelet count before leucovorin/5-FU therapy starts. Repeat weekly during first two courses and then once each cycle at anticipated white blood cell nadir.

• Check electrolyte levels and liver function tests before each treatment for first three cycles. Thereafter, check before every other cycle.

• Assess for adequate hydration when giving with 5-FU or high-dose methotrexate.

• Watch for hypersensitivity reactions, especially anaphylactoid reactions.

Patient teaching

• Teach patient about drug and protocol.

Stress importance of taking leucovorin as prescribed with high-dose methotrexate therapy. Emphasize that it's not just a vitamin.

• Tell patient to immediately report signs or symptoms of allergic reaction, such as hives.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

fo·lin·ic ac·id

(fō-lin'ik as'id),
1. The active form of folic acid that acts as a formyl group carrier in transformylation reactions; the calcium salt, leucovorin calcium, has therapeutic use.
2. The term is occasionally applied to other folates.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

folinic acid

(fō-lĭn′ĭk)
n.
Leucovorin.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

fo·lin·ic ac·id

(fō-lin'ik as'id)
The active form of folic acid, which acts as a formyl group carrier in transformylation reactions; the calcium salt, leucovorin calcium, has therapeutic use.
Synonym(s): citrovorum factor.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

folinic acid

A drug used to treat MEGALOBLASTIC ANAEMIA that has resulted from folic deficiency. A brand name is Refolinon.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
He proposed a lucrative business to the complainant, of exporting herbal vaccination products (Folinic B12 Oil) from India to Ghana.
Folinic acid acts as a synergistic agent, helping fluorouracil to inhibit thymidylate synthase.
Folic Acid and Folinic Acid: Combating GI Toxicity, Hepatic Transaminase Elevations, and Hair Loss
([double dagger]) Anti-toxoplasma treatment with sulfadiazine (50 mg/kg BD), pyrimethamine (2 mg/kg/day for 2 days, then 1 mg/kg 3 times a week for the rest of the treatment period), and folinic acid (10 mg 3 times a week).
[3] QUASAR Collaborative Group, "Comparison of fluorouracil with additional levamisole, higher-dose folinic acid, or both, as adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: a randomised trial," The Lancet, vol.
Management of methotrexate toxicity is aimed towards giving folinic acid rescue and enhancing methotrexate elimination.
The use of pyrimethamine with sulfadiazine plus folinic acid has been one of the most used treatments in toxoplasmosis and is considered as first-line treatment [18].
The patient was commenced on treatment for toxoplasmosis, which involves a six-week course of antimicrobial therapy including sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid.
She also received 50mg of methotrexate every other day (04 doses) with 5mg of folinic acid each day proceeding the methotrexate.
She received three courses of mFOLFOX6 regimen (oxaliplatin, folinic acid, and fluorouracil) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by resection of the peritoneal dissemination and partial resection of the vagina.
The most common side effects were associated with pyrimethamine medication and included hematologic complications, such as thrombocytopenia and leucopenia, despite folinic acid supplementation [9].