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Related to Foeniculum vulgare: sweet fennel
Foeniculum vulgare(trade name),
Foeniculum officinale(trade name),
Foeniculum capillaceum(trade name),
Anethum foeniculum(trade name)
GI tract spasticity, flatulence or bloating, anorexiaexpectorant and cough suppressantenhance lactation and promote menstruation
Fennel contains volatile oils which may promote GI motility and have antispasmodic effects, reduce upper respiratory tract secretions and increase mucociliatory activity. May have estrogenic effects.
Relief from GI discomfort.
Metabolism and Excretion: Unknown.
Contraindicated in: Allergy to carrot, celery, mugwort or other members of the Apiaceae family; Obstetric: Pregnancy and lactation.
Use Cautiously in: Hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast, uterine, and ovarian, as well as other conditions, such as endometriosis and uterine fibroids, due to possible estrogenic effects; Fennel oil should not be consumed for more thantwo weeks). Alcohol-containing products should be used cautiously in patients with known intolerance or liver disease.
Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
Interactions↓ ciprofloxacin bioavailability by 50%; space administration times.Alcohol -containing preparations may interact with disulfiram and metronidazole.May interfere with effects of oral contraceptives, estrogens, andtamoxifen.None known.
Oral (Adults) Tea—steep 1–2 g dried fruit or seed in 150 mL boiling water and strain. One cup tea QD-TID; Tincture—5–7.5 g per day; Oil—0.1–0.6 mL per day. Fennel oil should not be consumed for more than 2 wk.
Dried fruit/seed: OTC
- Assess frequency and nature of cough and consistency and color of sputum. Unless contraindicated encourage fluid intake of 1500–2000 mL per day to decrease viscosity of secretions and facilitate expectoration.
- Assess appetite, flatulence, and bowel elimination before and during therapy.
Potential Nursing DiagnosesAcute pain (Indications)
Ineffective airway clearance (Indications)
Deficient knowledge, related to medication regimen (Patient/Family Teaching)
- May be administered without regard for food intake.
- Do not take for longer than 2 wk.
- Instruct patients that grow this herb not to confuse it with Hemlock, which may be fatal if ingested.
- Inform patients that there is insufficient information to recommend use of this herbal supplement.
- Advise patients not to use this herb for longer than 2 wk.
- Caution patients to use sunscreen and protective clothing to prevent photosensitivity reactions.
- Advise female patients to avoid use of fennel if pregnancy is planned or suspected.
- Inform patients that the long term risks of this herb are not known.
- Improved appetite and decrease in intestinal discomfort.
- Decrease in intensity and frequency of cough without suppression in cough reflex.
- Regular menstrual flow.
fennelA perennial herb that contains fixed oils (e.g., oleic, linoleic and petroselenic acids), flavonoids, vitamins and volatile oils (e.g., anethole, estragole, limonene and pinene).
The seeds are regarded as antispasmodic, antitussive, diuretic, expectorant and tonic, and used for colic, dyspepsia, hernias, nausea and vomiting.
In Western herbal medicine, fennel is regarded as a carminative; the seeds and roots are used to treat tired eyes, gastric discomfort, kidney stones, to increase breast milk and to stimulate the appetite; other uses are similar to those in Chinese herbal medicine.