Foeniculum vulgare

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Related to Foeniculum vulgare: sweet fennel




(trade name),


(trade name),

Foeniculum vulgare

(trade name),

Foeniculum officinale

(trade name),

Foeniculum capillaceum

(trade name),

Anethum foeniculum

(trade name)


Therapeutic: antispasmodics
GI tract spasticity, flatulence or bloating, anorexiaexpectorant and cough suppressantenhance lactation and promote menstruation


Fennel contains volatile oils which may promote GI motility and have antispasmodic effects, reduce upper respiratory tract secretions and increase mucociliatory activity. May have estrogenic effects.

Therapeutic effects

Relief from GI discomfort.


Absorption: Unknown.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Unknown.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile

PO, Topicalunknownunknownunknown


Contraindicated in: Allergy to carrot, celery, mugwort or other members of the Apiaceae family; Obstetric: Pregnancy and lactation.
Use Cautiously in: Hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast, uterine, and ovarian, as well as other conditions, such as endometriosis and uterine fibroids, due to possible estrogenic effects; Fennel oil should not be consumed for more thantwo weeks). Alcohol-containing products should be used cautiously in patients with known intolerance or liver disease.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects


  • photosensitivity


ciprofloxacin bioavailability by 50%; space administration times.Alcohol -containing preparations may interact with disulfiram and metronidazole.May interfere with effects of oral contraceptives, estrogens, andtamoxifen.None known.
Oral (Adults) Tea—steep 1–2 g dried fruit or seed in 150 mL boiling water and strain. One cup tea QD-TID; Tincture—5–7.5 g per day; Oil—0.1–0.6 mL per day. Fennel oil should not be consumed for more than 2 wk.


Tea: OTC
Dried fruit/seed: OTC
Tincture: OTC
Oil: OTC

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess frequency and nature of cough and consistency and color of sputum. Unless contraindicated encourage fluid intake of 1500–2000 mL per day to decrease viscosity of secretions and facilitate expectoration.
  • Assess appetite, flatulence, and bowel elimination before and during therapy.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Acute pain (Indications)
Ineffective airway clearance (Indications)
Deficient knowledge, related to medication regimen (Patient/Family Teaching)


  • May be administered without regard for food intake.
  • Do not take for longer than 2 wk.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patients that grow this herb not to confuse it with Hemlock, which may be fatal if ingested.
  • Inform patients that there is insufficient information to recommend use of this herbal supplement.
  • Advise patients not to use this herb for longer than 2 wk.
  • Caution patients to use sunscreen and protective clothing to prevent photosensitivity reactions.
  • Advise female patients to avoid use of fennel if pregnancy is planned or suspected.
  • Inform patients that the long term risks of this herb are not known.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Improved appetite and decrease in intestinal discomfort.
  • Decrease in intensity and frequency of cough without suppression in cough reflex.
  • Regular menstrual flow.
Drug Guide, © 2015 Farlex and Partners


A perennial herb that contains fixed oils (e.g., oleic, linoleic and petroselenic acids), flavonoids, vitamins and volatile oils (e.g., anethole, estragole, limonene and pinene).
Chinese medicine
The seeds are regarded as antispasmodic, antitussive, diuretic, expectorant and tonic, and used for colic, dyspepsia, hernias, nausea and vomiting. 

Herbal medicine
In Western herbal medicine, fennel is regarded as a carminative; the seeds and roots are used to treat tired eyes, gastric discomfort, kidney stones, to increase breast milk and to stimulate the appetite; other uses are similar to those in Chinese herbal medicine.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Effect of mineral and bio-fertilizer on growth, yield and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) International Agro-physics, 2007; 21: 361-366.
Five medicinal plants including Mentha piperita (pudina), Violo odorata (panafsha), Trachyspermum copiticum (ajwain), Metricarea chamomile (babuna) and Foeniculum vulgare (saunf) were purchased from the local market of the Rawalakot Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.
Assessment of free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of Trachyspermum ammi L (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill, (fennel) seed extracts.
seed (Ekhtiyari and Moraghebi, 2011) and Foeniculum vulgare mill (Ekhtiyari et al., 2011) at the germination stage.
Foeniculum vulgare JONATHAN BUCKLEY Fennel with Cotinus coggygria Purpureus Group, crocosmia and Aster | 'Little Carlow' at Glebe Cottage.
FENNEL (Foeniculum vulgare) is a favourite in contemporary gardens as apart from its culinary use, it has soft, feathery foliage that provides texture and architectural shape.
Scientific name Common name Vegetables Pisum sativae Garden pea Lactuca sativa Lettuce cv butterhead Brassica oleraceae cv Acephala Kale Phaseolus vulgaris Green bean Daucus carota Carrot Brassicae oleracea cv Capitata Cabbage Brassica oleracea cv Gemmifera Brussels sprouts Allium cepeae Onion Cucumis sativa Cucumber Allium sativum Garlic Brassica oleracea cv Acephala Collards Solanum melongea Eggplant Solanum lycopersicum Tomato Capsicum annuum Bell pepper Apium graveolens Celery Abelmoschus esculentus Okra Foeniculum vulgare Fennel Zea mays Sweet corn Ornamental plants Nerium oleander Oleander Hippeastratum sp.
Most of the ethnomedicines are prepared using single plant in the region while some others are prepared by the mixing parts of more than one plant; for example, fresh leaves of Mentha viridis and Ocimum basilicum and fruit of Foeniculum vulgare are mixed and boiled to make tea used for stomach problems, equal quantities of fruits of Coriandrum sativum and Foeniculum vulgare are mixed and crushed to make powder and used as carminative, and extract of bulb of Allium cepa and Mentha viridis is mixed and used for cholera.
Plants with galactogogues components include fenugreek (Trigonella graecum foecum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), goat's rue (Galega officinalis), asparagus (Asparagus racemosus), anise (Pimpinella anisum), and milk thistle (Silybum marianum) [6, 7] (Table 2).
Meireles, "Supercritical fluid extraction from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare): global yield, composition and kinetic data," Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol.
used in cooking) were Foeniculum vulgare (for prevention of loss of appetite, indigestion, and so as to not have foul odor in mouth), Allium cepa (to be taken to prevent weakness and low sperm density), Allium sativum (to prevent heart disorders and rheumatism), Syzygium aromaticum (to prevent coughs), Capsicum frutescens (to prevent fever), Coriandrum sativum (to prevent biliary disorders, bloating, indigestion, and weakness), Curcuma longa (to prevent coughs, bloating, and indigestion), and Zingiber officinale (to prevent indigestion, coughs, and mucus formation).