fluorescent in situ hybridization
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1. the production of hybrids.
fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) a genetic mapping technique using fluorescent tags for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and genetic abnormalities. Called also chromosome painting.
molecular hybridization in molecular biology, formation of a partially or wholly complementary nucleic acid duplex by association of single strands, usually between DNA and RNA strands or previously unassociated DNA strands, but also between RNA strands; used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
fluorescent in situ hybridization
a method used to determine the chromosomal location or expression pattern of genomic DNA or cDNA fragments. The piece of DNA to be mapped (the "probe") is labeled with a fluorescent dye and hybridized to a chromosome preparation or to a tissue section. The probe anneals to complementary DNA or RNA sequences. Examination of the chromosomes or tissue section under a fluorescence microscope reveals the number, size, and location of the target sequences.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
Molecular medicine Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization. A method for locating a segment of DNA on a chromosome. The DNA is labeled with a fluorescent dye and hybridized to a cytological preparation of chromosomes that has been denatured to allow nucleic acid hybridization between chromosomal DNA and the probe. The site of hybridization is determined by fluorescent microscopy. FISH is a hybrid of 3 technologies: cytogenetics, fluorescence microscopy, and DNA hybridization, which is used to determine cell ploidy and detect chromosome segments by evaluating interphase—non-dividing—nuclei; in FISH, fluoresceinated chromosome probes are used for cytologic analysis and cytogenetic studies, and to detect intratumoral heterogeneity. In genetics, FISH provides a physical mapping approach to detect hybridization of probes with metaphase chromosomes and with the less-condensed somatic interphase chromatin
DNA probes may be applied to cell preparations on a slide; if the complementary DNA sequence is present, it binds to DNA and can be detected by light microscopy; FISH labels probes nonradioactively either directly with fluorochromes, or indirectly with biotin and fluorochrome-labeled avidin, with digoxeginin and fluorochrome-labeled anti-digoxeginin, or others; the use of multiple band-pass filters allows simultaneous viewing of numerous probes for different chromosomal sequences labeled with different fluorochromes; FISH is useful in cytogenetic studies, where probes for particular chromosomes—e.g., chromosomes 13, 18, 21—or chromosomal regions—e.g., ABL and BCR genes in the Philadelphia translocation—can be used for the prenatal diagnosis of common aneuploidies or to detect early stages of lymphoproliferative disorders; FISH is as sensitive as other analytical techniques—e.g., conventional cytology and flow cytometry, used to diagnose transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder
Pros FISH is simpler, less labor-intensive, and time-consuming—48 hours—than classic cytogenetics—karyotyping—2-3 weeks
Cons Only one question can be asked at a time, i.e., rather than asking ‘global issues’—e.g., what is the genetic composition of a population of cells
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fluor·es·cent in si·tu hy·brid·i·za·tion, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (flōr-es'ĕnt in sit'ū hī'brid-ī-zā'shŭn, flōr-es'ĕns)
A method used to determine the chromosomal location or expression pattern of genomic DNA or cDNA fragments. The piece of DNA to be mapped (the "probe") is labeled with a fluorescent dye and hybridized to a chromosome preparation or to a tissue section. The probe anneals to complementary DNA or RNA sequences. Examination of the chromosomes or tissue section under a fluorescence microscope reveals the number, size, and location of the target sequences.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012