A more recent study described by Rabbitt (1993) recruited volunteer who were matched on age and fluid intelligence
but differed in terms of experience at solving crossword puzzles (experts vs.
Analogical reasoning contributes to creativity (Dunbar, 1997; Sternberg, 1988), fluid intelligence
(Cattell, 1971; Gentner, 2010), and human innovation (Markman & Wood, 2009), and provides a way to measure important cognitive skills that reflect comprehension skills (Kuncel, Hezlett, & Ones, 2004).
Barbey stated that general intelligence requires both the "ability to flexibly to reach nearby, easy-to-access states -- to support crystallised intelligence -- but also the ability to adapt and reach difficult-to-access states -- to support fluid intelligence
Crystallized intelligence refers to accumulated knowledge and skills, and fluid intelligence
is linked to problem-solving and the ability to identify patterns.
Cattell, which mainly reflects the fluid intelligence
level of one's basic psychological process.
Beyond g, current psychometric literature (Carroll, 1993; McGrew, Flanagan, Keith, & Vanderwood, 1997) recognizes the importance of two broad cognitive abilities, Fluid Intelligence
(Gf) and Crystallized Intelligence (Gc), originally identified by Raymond Cattell and further developed by his student, Horn (1994).
Interestingly, the Flynn effect is much larger for fluid intelligence
(reasoning with geometric forms) than for crystallized intelligence (knowing a lot of vocabulary words), suggesting somewhat counterintuitively that increases in education increase fluid intelligence
more than crystallized intelligence.
Testing reading is a measure of the "knowing" part of ability, says lead author Prof Colin McKenzie, while the other two tests capture fluid intelligence
-- the "thinking" part of ability that includes memory, abstract reasoning and executive reasoning.
While the study didn't evaluate why self-confidence increases with age, Howe pointed to labels within the field of psychology that distinguish between fluid intelligence
and crystalized intelligence.
Hagerty's report, for instance, taught me the difference between fluid intelligence
and crystallized intelligence.