reported five cases of spontaneous recurrent hemarthrosis of the knee in which a degenerative flap tear
of the posterior horn of lateral meniscus was revealed with arthroscopic examination.
Mucosal flap tear
was the most common complication encountered after endoscopic septoplasty which occurred in 4(7%) and was due to sharp spur, synechaiem in 3(5.2%), hemorrhage seen in 1(1.7%), septal perforation in 1(1.7%).
Helpful clues in these cases include non-visualization of the posterior horn of the meniscus, the appearance of a larger anterior horn than posterior horn, or an anterior horn taller than 6mm .Flap Tears: A flap tear
or a displaced flap tear
is a term that is used often to describe a short-segment, horizontal meniscal tear with fragments either displaced into the notch or into the superior or inferior gutters.
Out of 36 grade-3 medial meniscal tears, 9 (25%) tears were classified as horizontal tears, 4(11.1%) as vertical, and 15(41.6%) complex tears, 3(8.3%)-bucket handle, 3(8.3%) radial tear and 2(5.5%) as flap tear
It explains the normal LASIK procedure, then details complications like loss of suction, air bubbles in the anterior chamber, buttonholed flaps and vertical gas breakthrough, opaque bubble layer, free flaps, flap tears
, incomplete flaps, irregular flaps, epithelial defects, thin and thick flaps, decentered flaps, subconjunctival hemorrhage and bleeding, and the management of postoperative complications, with discussion of etiology, incidence, and prevention.
Among the meniscal injuries the various patterns of tears that we came across were horizontal tears, bucket handle tears, radial tears, flap tears
and complex tears.
(Figure 7) produce U or V shape breaks with the apex of the flap pulled into the vitreous cavity but still attached at the anterior border of the tear.