Cellular responses such as epithelial filament cell proliferation, lamellar pavement cell hypertrophy have been observed by several authors (Fishelson
, 1980; Martinez et al., 2004; Barja-Fernandez et al.;) in fish exposed to metallic and non-metallic contaminants.
Morphological investigations of the mantle and siphons of several bivalve species have demonstrated that these tissues have sensory organs, with the degree of ciliation varying between species (Fishelson
However, studies of these animals with different time-lapse methods have revealed that sponges are able to perform several types of slow whole-organism behavior, including (1) crawling along a substrate (Burton, 1949; Jones, 1962; Fishelson
, 1981; Bond and Harris, 1988; Nickel et al., 2002; Nickel and Brummer, 2004; Sara et al" 2005; Nickel, 2006; Bond, 2013), (2) periodic body contractions (Parker, 1910; McNair, 1923; Jones, 1962; Prosser et aL, 1962; Bond, 2003, 2013; Nickel, 2003, 2004, 2010; Leys and Meech, 2006; Elliott and Leys, 2007; Nickel et al., 2011), and (3) rearrangements of the skeleton and aquiferous system (Bond, 1992; Nakayama et al., 2015).
, "Complement resistance of human carcinoma cells depends on membrane regulatory proteins, protein kinases and sialic acid," Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol.
A similar type of tissue has also been described for some goby (Family Gobiidae) species, which may occur in the gonad proper as a 'mesorchial gland' (Colombo and Burighel, 1974; Colombo et al., 1977) or may be located in accessory structure(s) previously referred to as seminal vesicles (Eggert, 1931; Young and Fox, 1937) or sperm duct glands (Miller, 1984) and more recently as accessory gonadal structures, or AGS (Cole and Robertson, 1988) (see Fishelson
, 1991 for summary).
 Bohana-Kashtan O, Ziporen L, Donin N, Kraus S, Fishelson
Studies of modern crinoids have shown that biotic interactions are common in crinoid populations and involve a diverse suite of macro- and microorganisms (e.g., Fishelson
1974; Zmarzly 1984; Fabricius & Dale 1993, among many others).
Z, Donin N, Zell S, Schultz S, Kirschfink M.
Chave (1978) observed Pristiapogon tae-niopterus (Bennett 1836) developing black fin markings when courting, and Fishelson
(1970) observed a male Cheilodipterus lineatus (Lacepede 1801) partially fading its normal longitudinal striped pattern and developing a white vertical band on his trunk during courtship.
Ontogenetic habitat shifts are particularly common in marine organisms and are widespread among a variety of vertebrates (Price and Grant, 1984; Fishelson
et al., 1987; Lind and Welsh, 1994; Kitowski, 2003; Page et al., 2005).
Sphenophyma is currently geographically restricted to Asia Minor (Fishelson
1985) and is the first genus to diverge from the common ancestor of the entire body of taxa studied.
, "Inhibition of the complement membrane attack complex by Schistosoma mansoni paramyosin," Infection and Immunity, vol.