Vaginal prolapse

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Vaginal prolapse

Bulging of the top of the vagina into the lower vagina or outside the opening of the vagina.
Mentioned in: Pelvic Relaxation


1. literally the falling down, or downward displacement, of a part or viscus. In many instances in animals the prolapse is lateral or even dorsal, e.g. in intervertebral disk prolapse.
2. to undergo such displacement.

anal prolapse
see rectal prolapse.
cloacal prolapse
caused in companion birds by parasitic enteritis.
eye prolapse
the eyeball is displaced from the orbit and is lying on the lower eyelid.
fat prolapse
see perivaginal fat prolapse.
oviduct prolapse
a minor prolapse of oviductal mucosa may stimulate cannibalism in others and the entire oviduct be removed via the cloaca.
parturient bladder prolapse
see parturient urinary bladder prolapse.
preputial prolapse
see preputial eversion.
rectal prolapse, prolapse of rectum
protrusion through the anus of the mucosa only or the complete wall of the rectum. Uncommon in most species but commonplace in the pig because of anatomical weakness in the area, especially in some breeds. The feeding of estrogens exacerbates the tendency.
prolapse retainer
1. a frame made of strong wire or thin metal rod and shaped like a lattice with obvious apertures for defecation and urination; strapped to the rear end of the cow so that the perineum will not bulge when the animal strains.
2. a bottle-shaped appliance sewn in to the vagina to prevent prolapse of the vagina.
third eyelid gland prolapse
uterine prolapse
displacement of the uterus so that the cervix is within the vaginal orifice (first-degree prolapse), the cervix is outside the orifice (second-degree prolapse), or the entire uterus is outside the orifice (third-degree prolapse). May be related causally to hypocalcemia in cattle.
Enlarge picture
Uterine prolapse in a mare. By permission from Knottenbelt DC, Pascoe RR, Diseases and Disorders of the Horse, Saunders, 2003
vaginal prolapse
edematous enlargement of vaginal tissue during estrus. Usually the prolapse contains only the mucosa of the ventral floor, but it may also contain the urinary bladder or the cervix. Kinking of the urethra may cause obstruction and eventual rupture of the bladder. Called also estral eversion, vaginal hyperplasia.


pertaining to the vagina, the tunica vaginalis testis, or to any sheath.

vaginal annulus
see annulus vaginalis.
vaginal aplasia
manifested by imperforate hymen or residual strands of hymen. See imperforate hymen.
vaginal aspiration
use of a suction apparatus to collect a sample of vaginal fluid for culture, cytological or immunological examination.
vaginal biopsy
collection of a sample of mucosa by a pinch biopsy instrument for histopathological examination.
vaginal constriction
inherited defect in Jersey cows combined with anal constriction, sometimes with rectovaginal fistula.
vaginal cyclic changes
see vaginal cytology (below).
vaginal cystocele
the urinary bladder is lying on the floor of the vagina; the displacement has been via the urethra by eversion or via a tear in the floor of the vagina.
vaginal cytology
cyclic changes in the exfoliated epithelial cells of the vaginal mucosa occurring synchronously with the stages of the estrous cycle; collection of samples by the use of a swab and laboratory examination of a smear is a useful aid in determining the most appropriate time to mate a bitch.
vaginal fornix
see vaginal fornix.
vaginal hypoplasia segmental
see müllerian duct aplasia.
vaginal inflammation
see vaginitis (1).
vaginal neoplasm
include papilloma, sarcoma, myxofibroma.
vaginal process
an outpocketing of the peritoneum into the gubernaculum at the site of the future inguinal canal in the male fetus; becomes the tunica vagina of the adult.
vaginal prolapse
see vaginal prolapse.
vaginal retainer
see bearing retainer.
vaginal ring
see annulus vaginalis.
vaginal rupture
occurs during mating, dystocia, insemination, or by sadistic or malicious trauma. Results in peritonitis or cellulitis of the pelvic fascia.
vaginal smear
examination of the cells in a smear is used as an aid in predicting the time of ovulation, which may be useful in selecting the optimal date for breeding.
vaginal stricture
cicatricial contraction after traumatic injury.
vaginal tunic
the double peritoneal fold which encloses the spermatic cord and the testis; made up of a visceral layer which is adherent to the testis and cord, and a parietal layer which lines the scrotum and the inguinal canal.
vaginal vestibule
entrance to the vagina enclosed between the lips of the vulva, the labia minor. Connects the vagina at the external urethral orifice to the external genital opening; develops from the embryonic urogenital sinus.
vaginal wash
irrigation of the vagina with sterile saline can be used to recover cells, which are stained and examined microscopically to monitor estrus.