female genital cutting


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The disfigurement and/or removal of parts of the external female genitalia which is performed in many Central and West African countries and required for tribal identity; female ‘circumcision’ has deeply rooted cultural significance; male circumcision is a symbol of religious and ethnic identity, female circumcision is linked to a woman’s sexuality and her reproductive role in society

female genital cutting

Partial or complete surgical removal of the clitoris, a traditional practice in some African, Middle Eastern, and Southeast Asian cultures. The cutting usually is performed between the ages of 1 week and 14 years. The procedure is performed by nonmedical personnel without benefit of anesthesia or sterile conditions. The most common procedures are removal of the clitoral prepuce, excision of the clitoris, removal of the labia minora and sometimes most of the labia majora. The two sides may be sutured together to occlude the vagina. Possible immediate complications include infection, tetanus, shock, hemorrhage, and death. The possible long-term physical and mental disabilities include chronic pelvic infection, keloids, vulvar abscesses, sterility, incontinence, depression, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, and obstetric complications.
Synonym: female circumcision; female genital mutilation; infibulation (2).
References in periodicals archive ?
Getaneh (2014) also noted diversity of local discourses and practices associated with female genital cutting within and across Gamo communities.
With regard to the phenomenon of female genital mutilation, it is particularly important to ensure that acts of female genital cutting are criminalized under Polish criminal law irrespective of the place of their performance.
Methods for the Prevention of Female Genital Cutting in Finland.
Thus, the common assumption among English speakers in Somaliland that "FGM" refers to all forms of female genital cutting is wrong.
Female genital cutting: clinical and cultural guidelines.
(38) Ellen Gruenbaum, Sock-Cultural Dynamics of Female Genital Cutting. Research Findings, Gaps, and Directions 1 CULTURE, HEALTH & SEXUALITY 429, 429-30 (Sep.--Oct., 2005) [hereinafter Sock-Cultural Dynamics of Female Genital Cutting).
This is apparent in the essays published in Reproductive Justice, where the tension is between understanding the reason for such cultural practices as female genital cutting, and wanting to achieve a world in which such practices do not exist.
Plan., "Tradition and Rights: Female Genital Cutting in West Africa", 2005, accessed on January 15, 2011, http://plan-international.org/about plan/resources/publications/protection/tradition-and-rights-femalegenital-cutting-in-west-africa
Female genital cutting (FGC) is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women.
Female genital cutting (FGC) is practised throughout the world, but is commonest in Asia and Africa.
The topics covered include environmental destruction, genocidal conflicts between tribes and ethnic groups, ineffective legal protections for women, forced marital arrangements, the life-altering effects of religious and social customs (especially female genital cutting), emigration, and exile.
In a classic case of trying to have it both ways, the AAP policy stated that it opposes: "all types of female genital cutting that pose risks of physical or psychological harm, counsels its members not to perform such procedures, recommends that its members actively seek to dissuade families from carrying out harmful forms of FGC, and urges its members to provide patients and their parents with compassionate education about the harms of FGC while remaining sensitive to the cultural and religious reasons that motivate parents to seek this procedure for their daughters."