lipodystrophy

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lipodystrophy

 [lip″o-dis´tro-fe]
1. any disturbance of fat metabolism.
2. a group of conditions due to defective metabolism of fat, resulting in absence of subcutaneous fat; they may be congenital or acquired and partial or total. (See Atlas 2, Part F.)
congenital generalized lipodystrophy an autosomal recessive condition marked by the virtual absence of subcutaneous adipose tissue, large body size, splenomegaly, hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans, and reduced glucose tolerance in the presence of high insulin levels.
intestinal lipodystrophy former name for Whipple's disease.
partial lipodystrophy a condition seen mainly in females in the first decade of life, characterized by symmetrical loss of subcutaneous fat, usually beginning on the face and gradually extending to the chest, neck, back, and upper limbs; this gives the lower part of the body an apparent, and possibly real, adiposity of the buttocks and lower limbs. Some affected patients develop insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, triglyceridemia, and renal disease.
progressive lipodystrophy progressive and symmetrical loss of subcutaneous fat from the parts above the pelvis, facial emaciation, and abnormal accumulation of fat about the thighs and buttocks.
total lipodystrophy an autosomal recessive disorder occurring mainly in females, characterized by a generalized loss of subcutaneous fat and extracutaneous adipose tissue, present at birth or appearing later in life, and associated with hepatomegaly with abdominal protuberance, hypoglycemia and insulin-resistant nonketotic diabetes, hyperlipemia, marked elevation of the basal metabolic rate, accelerated somatic growth, advanced bone age, acanthosis nigricans and hirsutism.

lip·o·dys·tro·phy

(lip'ō-dis'trō-fē),
1. Defective metabolism of fat.
2. Abnormal depositions or wastings of adipose tissue, or combinations of these changes, seen in consequence of some protease inhibitor use in AIDS patients.
Synonym(s): cellulite (2) , lipodystrophia
[lipo- + G. dys-, bad, difficult, + trophē, nourishment]

lip·o·dys·tro·phy

(lip'ō-dis'trŏ-fē)
Defective metabolism of fat.
[lipo- + G. dys-, bad, difficult, + trophē, nourishment]

lipodystrophy

A condition of disordered fat metabolism. There may be abnormal breakdown of fats with loss of weight, excessive levels of fats in the blood, raised blood sugar levels, enlargement of the liver and abnormal thyroid gland function. In some cases there is breakdown of fat from the upper part of the body and abnormal deposition around the buttocks and thighs. The condition can be caused by prolonged multiple antiretoviral therapy.

lip·o·dys·tro·phy

(lip'ō-dis'trŏ-fē)
1. Defective metabolism of fat.
2. Abnormal depositions or wastings of adipose tissue, or combinations of these changes.
[lipo- + G. dys-, bad, difficult, + trophē, nourishment]
References in periodicals archive ?
Women during menopause or climacteric period, when there is a reduction of estrogen, have FM increase and body fat redistribution for the abdominal area, which is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular events [46, 47].
One of these complications is lipodystrophy (LD), also referred to as the HIV-lipodystrophy syndrome or fat redistribution syndrome.
Although LD was initially thought to be a syndrome of fat redistribution resulting in peripheral LA combined with central LH, preliminary data from the FRAM study in adults (Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV infection) (5) indicate that LH and LA are less closely linked than was previously presumed.
(6,13-19) The Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Changes in HIV Infection (FRAM) Study set out to examine rigorously, albeit with a cross-sectional design, the relative contributions of peripheral lipoatrophy and central fat accumulation to the phenotype of HIV-associated lipodystrophy.
government agencies worked together to produce a series of papers on integrating nutrition with HIV medicine.' These papers, addressed mainly to medical professionals, review "general nutritional management, evaluation and intervention for wasting, insulin resistance, fat redistribution, dyslipidemia, lactic acidosis, food safety, and bone abnormalities" (from the introduction).
Lipoatrophy of the face and extremities and fat redistribution on the trunk have increasingly been recognized in HIV-positive patients.
The inaccurate term "fat redistribution" is often used to describe HIV-associated lipodystrophy, implying a movement of adipose tissue or cells from the periphery to the abdomen or other areas, an idea for which there are no supportive data.
Nevertheless, it has become clear that this therapy provokes metabolic disorders (such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and lactic acidosis) and body fat redistribution, a condition known as lipodystrophic syndrome (LS).
While fat redistribution has made all the latest headlines, I find this issue of "wasting" while on treatment to be fairly common.
The researchers also concluded that these risks were independent of metabolic complications associated with body fat redistribution.
One of the more interesting studies presented in this area was one that looked at the incidence of fat redistribution and metabolic abnormalities in patients who were treated during primary HIV infection.