chronic compartment syndrome

(redirected from Fascial compartment)
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anterior compartment syndrome

A condition that typically arises in the anterior compartment of the lower leg, characterised by cramping, pain and tightness, often with numbness and tingling in the foot.

chronic compartment syndrome

An increase in intracompartmental pressure that may occur during exercise or other forms of exertional activity. The increased intracompartmental pressure decreases blood flow to the distal extremity and impairs nerve function.

Etiology

Individuals who have herniated muscles that occlude the neurovascular network, unyielding fascia in a closed compartment, or excessive hypertrophy of muscles during exercise are predisposed to chronic compartment syndrome.

Symptoms

The patient will complain of pain, numbness, and weakness in the involved extremity during exercise. Inspection may also reveal cyanosis and swelling in the distal portion of the involved limb. Symptoms may subside following activity or may lead to muscle necrosis, requiring fasciotomy.

References in periodicals archive ?
There was sufficient concern for impending compartment syndrome which led to fascial compartment release.
The anterolateral tibial compartment is the commonest site due to superficial and tight fascial compartment [5].
At exploratory laparotomy, purulent fluid was found in the anterior fascial compartment, with gross pus in the abdomen.
Exercise ischaemia in the medial fascial compartment of the leg," Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery.
Compartment syndrome develops when swelling occurs within a fascial compartment (groupings of muscles, nerves and blood vessels in the arms and legs).
The incidence of clinical compartment syndrome in snakebites is low (9% in the selected patient population with RPS), probably as most snake fangs penetrate the subcutaneous tissue rather than the muscle fascial compartment. However, RPS should be monitored closely as it can potentially cause significant morbidity.
Studies have suggested that a delta pressure of less than 30mmHg is an indication for an urgent decompression of the fascial compartment (Matsen & Clawson 1975, McQueen & Court-Brown 1996b).
The muscular adaptations to chronic running exercise leading to local hypertrophy, reduce the compliance of the available volume within the fascial compartment (Hutchinson and Ireland, 1994; Tzortziou et al., 2006; Winston et al., 2004).
Additionally, it has been shown that the tibialis posterior muscle is contained within its own fascial compartment and may be considered the "fifth" compartment of the lower leg.
The reason is anatomical spread through the retroperitoneal fascial compartment, which extends through the posterior mediastinum to the neck.
Compartment syndrome occurs due to increased pressure within a fascial compartment. Due to the fixed volume of these compartments, any increase in fluid within the interstitium will reduce the arteriovenous pressure gradient, ultimately resulting in reduced tissue perfusion and cell death [1].
The anatomical basis for this is likely the association of the axillary artery and cords of the brachial plexus in a common fascial sheath, the medial brachial fascial compartment (9).