Both types of memory errors, those based on recall (forgetting) and those based on distorted recollections (false memories
), emerge in situations in which stereotypes are involved.
Yapko's (1998, 2003) position that it is the responsibility of the therapist to discern true from false memories
places the mental health counselor in the role of investigator and judge.
First, the reason for asking the participants for the immediate free recall is because the act of initial recall might enhance later false memories
in a final recall test (Roediger & McDermott, 1995).
In this collection of six short studies, four of which were previously published, Hendel inquires whether or not historical-like narratives in the Bible, dependent largely on Israel's national and/or cultural memories, were true or false memories
of real persons and events.
I don't see them as simply shallow any more than I see "false memories
" as shallow.
Research has also demonstrated that therapists cannot reliably differentiate true from false memories
(Bruck & Ceci, 1997).
Even with this most vulnerable population, however, implanting false memories
of nonemotional details is rejected by about 75 percent of the subjects.
Experiment S is an improved version of the original, designed to maximise the number of false memories
The subjects tests results were analyzed to determine if either the abuse or repetition of presented words or both caused children to create false memories
. The results of this research can be applied to forensic interviewing because a child who is susceptible to false memories
is more likely to give a false testimony.
Meanwhile, evidence has increased that humans can produce false memories
. The result has been a shifting definition of what it means to "err on the safe side." This phrase was once used by recovery-oriented therapists to explain why they encouraged their patients to recall long-hidden memories; that others (and the patient) might suffer unnecessarily if these "recalled" incidents had never happened seemed irrelevant, unlikely, and not the therapist's concern.
The foundation helps link alleged abusers with attorneys, who specialize in portraying therapists as false memory implanters, and with prominent scientist-experts, such as Elizabeth Loftus, who testify on the ease of implanting false memories
of childhood trauma.
"It's clear that people have difficulty suppressing false memories
. The key questions now are how and when are these mistaken memories generated and can they be avoided?"