These molecular subtypes showed different gene expressions: the Uro subtype expressed FGFR3 and cyclin D1 (CCND1), with the frequent loss of 9p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A [CDKN2A]); the genomically unstable subtype expressed Forkhead box Ml (FOXM1) but not CK5, with the loss of RB1; and the basal/SCCL subtype expressed CK5 and CK14, but not FOXA1
and GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3).
The essential pioneer factor FOXA1
will be the initial target as it has shown to be pivotal in the tumour development and maintenance of oestrogen-receptor positive luminal breast cancer.
(12) The genes that are most frequently associated with neuroendocrine carcinoma are GATA3, FOXA1
, TBX3, and ARID1A as well as PIK3CA, AKT1, and CDH1.12 Genomic analysis of the liver lesion noted on progression of palbociclib-based treatment revealed that she had ESR1 Y537S and ARID1A L1915fs*3 mutations as well as CCND1 amplification.
Specifically, HER2/MAPK kinase signaling activates E2F transcription factors, leading to the transcription of CCND1 gene encoding cyclin D1, while active estrogen receptor alpha (ER[alpha]) in complexwith FOXA1
transcription factor intensifies CCND1 transcription through an estradiol-responsive enhancer .
Huang, "Modulation of androgen receptor by FoxA1
and FoxO1 factors in prostate cancer," International Journal of Biological Sciences, vol.
SNP rs9332978 of CYP4A11 is located within a binding site for transcription factor FOXA1
(forkhead box A1 or hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 alpha).
As a matter of fact, it has been shown that FOXA1
and FOXA2 deletion inhibit the liver growth from the anterior intestine in the early period (9).
Also, deletion of FOXA1
and FOXA2 in embryonic DA neurons affects the binding of NURR1 to the promoter region of TH and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) genes leading to a significant loss of TH and AADC expression in the SNpc of embryos and adult mice .
Cai et al., "MicroRNA-212 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by targeting FOXA1
," OncoTargets and Therapy, vol.
Additionally, gland development related terms included CAV1, homeobox A3 (HOXA3), E74-like factor 3 (ELF3), forkhead box A1 (FOXA1
), homeobox A9 (HOXA9) genes as shown in Supplementary Table S2.
This group of genes produces transcripts that are related to pluripotency (OCT4 and SOX2), a transcription factor involved in morphogenesis and a homeobox family member (HOXD8), a regulator of development (SOX17), a replicative senescence controller (CDKN2A), and a transcription factor related to embryonic development (FOXA1