Paracrine effects of embryo-derived fgf4
and bmp4 during pig trophoblast elongation.
While the signaling factors, such as Shh, BMP4, FGF4, Wnt, and Eda may still be expressed at high levels, their spatial patterning is altered, which results in small malformed molars with few short, flattened cusps and conical incisors [Tucker et al., 2000; Caton and Tucker, 2009].
FGF4, a Direct Target of LEF1 and Wnt signaling, can Rescue the Arrest of Tooth Organogenesis in Lef1-/- mice.
The mouse FGF family comprises 22 members and could be divided into seven subfamilies: FGF1 (FGF1 and FGF2), FGF4 (FGF4-6), FGF7 (FGF3, FGF7, FGF10, and FGF22) FGF8 (FGF8, FGF17, and FGF18), FGF9 (FGF9, FGF16, and FGF20), FGF11 (FGF11-14), and FGF15 subfamilies (FGF15, FGF21, and FGF23) [39, 40].
As the epithelial bud is formed unceasingly in the dental lamina, the Fgf9 and Fgf20 expressions persist while Fgf3 and Fgf4 are initiated [65, 66].
The expressions of Fgf4 and Fgf9 are detected in the inner enamel epithelium (IEE) , while the expression of Fgf2 is found in the SR, the expressions of Fgfrl and Fgfr2IIIb in the ameloblasts.
Mariya et al., "Fibroblasts induce expression of FGF4
in ovarian cancer stem-like cells/cancer-initiating cells and upregulate their tumor initiation capacity," Laboratory Investigation; A Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology, vol.
Importantly, medium-regulated external factors are included: LIF/BMP4, which activates Nanog, the FGF4
receptor signaling, and Gsk3.
PSCs were first treated with activin A to induce the formation of definitive endoderm, which was then steered toward mid/hindgut fates by treatment with FGF4
Differentiation factors can include butylated hydroxyanisole and NGF for neuronal differentiation; BMP-12 for tenocyte differentiation; dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, insulin, and indomethacin for adipogenic differentiation; monothioglycerol, HGF, oncostatin, dexamethasone, FGF4
, insulin, transferrin, and selenium for hepatocytic differentiation; b-FGF and VEGF for endothelial differentiation; TGF-[beta]1, insulin, transferrin, dexamethasone, and ascorbic acid for chondrogenic differentiation; insulin, transferrin, and selenium for skeletal myogenic differentiation; and dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and [beta]-glycerophosphate for osteogenic differentiation [94-99].
Jin, "PARP1 poly(ADPribosyl)ates Sox2 to control Sox2 protein levels and FGF4
expression during embryonic stem cell differentiation," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
, HGF, and oncostatin M have been shown to be key cytokines for hepatic differentiation from mouse BMMSCs .