The coexistence, alongside the public sector, of a community sector whose "specific identity" was seen as tied to its "distinct philosophy of intervention" (FFQ
et al., 1988) was now entrenched in terms that could be invoked against eventual interference by Regional Boards.
for intake of vitamin A foods is a screening tool, and like all screening tools, is not diagnostic in nature.
Azizi, "Reliability and relative validity of an FFQ
for nutrients in the Tehran lipid and glucose study," Public Health Nutrition, vol.
was designed based on a 24-hour food recall previously used in a cross-sectional study (8) conducted in 2011 with a representative sample of maroon communities in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil.
Complete 24-h dietary recall and FFQ
data were available for 2097 participants (805 men and 1292 women) aged 19-90 years.
usually measures eating habits of individuals throughout the year, and is the more appropriate tool in epidemiologic studies.11 New measurement tools are needed to make a validation in comparison with established ones before they are used in routine practice.
Second, measurement errors were inevitable because dietary intake was assessed using FFQ
which might have led to underestimation of associations, however the FFQ
used in this study has good validity and reproducibility among Iranian population (20) and we also excluded subjects who were under-/over-reporting their energy intakes.
Lastly, we used a validated FFQ
and diet quality score index specifically designed for infants and toddlers.
In the present study, nutritional habits were evaluated by FFQ
that food frequency characteristics in the participants were reported as the frequency used, per week or month.
A total of 153,220 participants completed the FFQ
, of which some were excluded due to implausible energy intakes and/or history of CVD at baseline.
As a consequence, a combination of dietary assessment methods (24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ
)) was used to assess dietary practices (food habits), along with the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), a universally accepted tool for assessment of food access and availability .
Dietary intake was assessed by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ