Abnormal ocular alignment frequently results from damage to the intranuclear portion of the gaze system, including: cranial nerves (CN) III (oculomotor), IV (trochlear), and VI (abducens), or the myoneural junction or extraocular muscles
Idiopathic orbital myositis, also called myositis subtype of idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor, first described by Gleason (10) in 1903, is a myositis resulting in the inflammation of the extraocular muscles
without any local or systemic reason.
Oculomotor nerve and muscle abnomialities in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles
. Ann Neurol 1997;41(3):314-325.
They also found a significant correlation between the resistivity index and Barrett's muscle index (an index that quantifies extraocular muscle
impingement on the optic nerve) (14-16).
TAO-specific data analyzed were as follows: presence of diplopia and clinical activity score (CAS) , information on previous surgeries (extraocular muscles
and orbital decompression), previous and current treatment of the TAO (steroids)/Graves' disease (GD) (thyroid surgery and radioiodine treatment), patient's age at onset of TAO, and history of tobacco use.
The wrapping of an implant is done in order to allow attachment of the extraocular muscles
and to prevent exposure.
Feldon, "Extraocular muscle
changes in experimental orbital venous stasis: some similarities to Graves' orbitopathy," Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol.
Left medial blow-out fracture through the anterior lamina papyracea with no entrapment of the extraocular muscles
. Haematoma of the left extraocular muscles
IEA was performed using acupuncture needles (25.0 mm in length, 0.20 mm in diameter) gently inserted into the extraocular acupuncture muscle points (the surface projections of the extraocular muscles
) coordinated with Tongziliao (GB1), Jingming (BL1), and Cuanzhu (BL2) points as well.
One anterior ciliary artery supplies the lateral rectus muscle and two supply each of the other extraocular muscles
. (1) The vertical rectus muscle in particular has a major impact on anterior segment circulation.
The characteristic clinical feature includes fatigable weakness of muscles with early involvement of facial and extraocular muscles
As GO is characterized by the swelling of extraocular muscles
and orbital fat , we hypothesized that the thickness of extraocular muscles
and orbital fat detected by MRI might be useful in evaluating treatment response.