The 12th thoracic, iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves were blocked by injection of 10 to 15 ml of anaesthetic solution deep to external oblique
aponeurosis 1.5 cm medial and superior to the anterior superior iliac spine.
It originated from the ribs or the costal cartilages or the aponeurosis of the external oblique
muscle (Samuel & Vollala), and it inserted into the medial epicondyle of the humerus and to the brachial fascia, medial intermuscular septum or medial aspect of the humerus (Spinner et al., 1991).
Fora posterior QL block with posteroanterior needle trajectory (an alternative approach) (c), the needle is advanced towards the LIFT on the posterior surface of the QL (ES, erector spinae; LD, latissimus dorsi; LIFT, lumbar interfascial triangle; QL, quadratus lumborum; PM, psoas major; EO, external oblique
muscle; IO, internal oblique muscle; TA, transversus abdominis muscle).
If the latissimus dorsi was removed, we sutured the Prolene net together with the internal and external oblique
muscles, and then closed the abdominal cavity.
In the only ultrasound study assessing the thickness of lateral abdominal muscles in adolescents with AIS the thickness of all three muscles (External Oblique
- EO, Internal Oblique - IO and Transverse Abdominis - TrA) on both sides at rest were smaller in the AIS group compared to the control group (13).
 A strip of external oblique
aponeurosis was used for strengthening of the posterior wall alternative to a prosthetic mesh.
Saeterbakken and Fimland (11) observed lower strength in 6RM on US and similar EMG activity in the anterior deltoid, biceps brachii, and external oblique
(10,11) A protocol was established to mea sure muscle activation for bilateral rectus abdominus, external oblique
, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi as percentages of maximal voluntary isometric contraction.
In group A' patients entire dose of bupivacaine was given subcutaneously after approximating the aponeurosis of external oblique
muscle and group B' patients received half of this dose subcutaneously and half of the dose into the incised edges of peritoneum and adjacent muscles below the external oblique
% EMGmax), was 18-25% for rectus abdominis (RA), 27-34% for external oblique
(EO), and 52-65% for internal oblique (IO) muscles.