The occlusion effect (mechanism 1) is induced when the BC stimulus on the head leads to vibrations of the wall of the external meatus
; therefore, when the meatus is occluded, the air pressures produced in the occluded cavity lead to vibrations of the tympanic membrane and the ossicular chain, as in AC.
The majority of lesions are seen in women in the external meatus
. Urethral caruncle, urethral prolapse, urethral diverticulum and periurethral gland abscess are included in the differential diagnosis (2).
Methods of treatment include transposing the calculus back into the bladder if it is located in the posterior urethra, or performing meatotomy for stones located in the fossa navicularis or external meatus
Physical examination revealed a retractable foreskin and two external meatus
of a double urethra (Figure 2).
Genital condyloma acuminata are generally observed on the skin, external meatus
, and rarely observed in the proximal urethra (4).
The goals of tragus reconstruction in the past were only to create a pretragal depression and good tragus projection, hide the external meatus
, and leave an inconspicuous scar .
Hypospadias is a common congenital anomaly of the male gender in which external meatus
is located abnormally on the ventral surface of the shaft of the penis or even perineum.1,2 It is classified into distal or anterior, middle and proximal or posterior hypospadias which are further sub-divided into different types on the basis of the location of the meatus.1,3
The negative electrodes were placed ventral to the external meatus
of the ears bilaterally.
On cystoscopy, external meatus
was found to be indurated but bladder and urethra was normal.
Urethral calculi are preponderantly found in the prostatic urethra, the bulb, the proximal penile urethra, the fossa navicularis and external meatus
It is an inflammatory nodule that arises at the posterior lip of the external meatus
and is commonly seen after menopause.[sup.3] The lesion consists of a connective tissue core with its surface covered by either a urothelial or squamous epithelium.[sup.2] Macroscopically, a caruncle is a nodular or pedunculated erythematous lesion that may bleed easily.[sup.3] Caruncles are uniformly benign and are not considered risk factors for subsequent neoplasia.[sup.4] Most cases are treated conservatively with topical estrogen, anti-inflammatory creams or a sitz bath.[sup.5] Large or refractory lesions may be resected surgically.
Physical examination of the right ear revealed that a large, fleshy mass had filled the entire circumference of the EAC and protruded slightly from within the external meatus
. A biopsy was obtained from the superoanterior aspect of the bony right external auditory canal.