Explicit memory

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(mem'o-re) [L. memoria]
1. The mental registration, retention, and recollection of past experiences, sensations, or thoughts. This group of functions relies on the coordinated activities of the association regions of the cerebral cortex, specific sensory areas of the brain, subcortical centers, the hypothalamus, the midbrain, and a wide array of neurochemicals and neurotransmitters. Injury or damage to any of these regions of the brain (e.g., as a result of intoxication, stroke, atrophy, or infection) impairs the ability to incorporate new memories or recall and use earlier ones.
2. The capacity of the immune system to respond to antigens to which it has previously been exposed. Immunological memory depends on the activities of T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, major histocompatibility molecules, adhesion molecules, chemokines, and many other biochemicals.

anterograde memory

Anterograde amnesia.

declarative memory

The conscious recollection of learned information. It is a memory function that is improved by the association of learning with highly charged emotional experiences.
Synonym: explicit memory

episodic memory

The ability to recall discrete events (e.g., in one's personal history).

explicit memory

Declarative memory.

false memory

An inaccurate or incomplete remembrance of a past event. Memory accuracy, validity, and reliability are affected by the following factors: age; serious illness, injury, or psychological trauma; prolonged medication therapy or use of a substance of abuse; mental retardation; mental illness; anxiety; preoccupation; fatigue; guilt and fear of penalty; coercion; or incentive to testify falsely. These factors must be considered in the evaluation of the reliability of patient-reported memories.

immediate memory

Memory for events or information in the last few hours or days. Brain damage that limits one's ability to store new information may impair immediate memory but have no effect on memories of the distant past.
Synonym: short-term memory See: digit span test

impaired memory

A state in which a person is unable to remember or recall bits of information or behavioral skills. Impaired memory may be attributed to pathophysiological or situational causes that are either temporary or permanent.

implicit memory

Recall that is preserved when the patient is given a cue to help retrieve information but deficient without such cues.
Synonym: nondeclarative memory

incidental memory

The mental storage of information that occurs passively (i.e., without conscious effort).

long-term memory

Recall of experiences or of information acquired in the distant past.

It includes both explicit memory and procedural memory.

nondeclarative memory

Implicit memory.

procedural memory

The ability to recall how to perform activities or functions, e.g., how to brush one's teeth or ride a skateboard. This type of memory is often preserved when other memory functions are lost.
See: declarative memory

recovered memory

A memory recalled after having been forgotten. Recall may be the result of psychotherapy or suggestion. Not all instances of recovered memory are accurate (some are the result of suggestion).
See: false memory

remote memory

Recollection of information that was stored in the distant past.

retrograde memory

Retrograde amnesia.

selective memory

The recollection only of particular aspects of an event or experience; limited recall.

short-term memory

Immediate memory.

sensory memory

The momentary storage in the brain of images or sensations just felt, heard, seen, smelled, or tasted. Sensory memories typically last only a few seconds.

spatial memory

The ability to recall three-dimensional objects or places, e.g., the location of an object in space, the position of one object in relation to another, or the correct path through a maze.

topographic memory

1. The ability to recall the contours, design, shape, or structure of a previously experienced environment.
2. The ability to hold in the mind a map of a person, place, or thing.

working memory

The ability to store and use those facts and ideas necessary for performing immediate tasks.

Explicit memory

Conscious recall of facts and events that is classified into episodic memory (involves time and place) and semantic memory (does not involve time and place). For example, an amnesiac may remember he has a wife (semantic memory), but cannot recall his last conversation with her (episodic memory).
Mentioned in: Amnesia
References in periodicals archive ?
The older people showed better implicit than explicit memory and better implicit memory than the younger.
Children were then asked whether any of the sounds had been played to them before their operation and accurate recall of the target sound was assumed to be indicative of explicit memory.
Procedural memory is more robust against the neurological insults of AD than explicit memory (Farina et al.
The dichotomy between implicit and explicit memory systems using changes in viewpoint, however, has not yet been investigated in infants.
Vicary found that the participants with Williams syndrome showed a similar profile during an explicit memory task, when compared to a group of individuals matched for mental age.
Through his landmark research, Kandel teased out the differences between implicit and explicit memory, teamed with biotechnology-industry researchers to study serotonin receptors, and investigated the biological basis of memory loss associated with conditions such as Alzheimer's.
Explicit memory is actively learned whereas implicit memory is information that is more passively absorbed, explained Dr.
Dissociation of the acute effects of alcohol on implicit and explicit memory processes.
PTSD treatment as a whole frequently focuses on some method of processing these memories from the implicit to the explicit memory system.
280), which is not part of the medial temporal lobe system involved with declarative or explicit memory, the system typically studied by false-memory researchers (Zola-Morgan, Squire, & Amaral, 1986).
picoPERC saves memory by eliminating unnecessary functions from the load image and using explicit memory management.
Explicit memory is the conscious intentional recollection of previous experiences and information, and includes factual, episodic, autobiographical, and narrative forms.

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