Explicit memory

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(mem'o-re) [L. memoria]
1. The mental registration, retention, and recollection of past experiences, sensations, or thoughts. This group of functions relies on the coordinated activities of the association regions of the cerebral cortex, specific sensory areas of the brain, subcortical centers, the hypothalamus, the midbrain, and a wide array of neurochemicals and neurotransmitters. Injury or damage to any of these regions of the brain (e.g., as a result of intoxication, stroke, atrophy, or infection) impairs the ability to incorporate new memories or recall and use earlier ones.
2. The capacity of the immune system to respond to antigens to which it has previously been exposed. Immunological memory depends on the activities of T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, major histocompatibility molecules, adhesion molecules, chemokines, and many other biochemicals.

anterograde memory

Anterograde amnesia.

declarative memory

The conscious recollection of learned information. It is a memory function that is improved by the association of learning with highly charged emotional experiences.
Synonym: explicit memory

episodic memory

The ability to recall discrete events (e.g., in one's personal history).

explicit memory

Declarative memory.

false memory

An inaccurate or incomplete remembrance of a past event. Memory accuracy, validity, and reliability are affected by the following factors: age; serious illness, injury, or psychological trauma; prolonged medication therapy or use of a substance of abuse; mental retardation; mental illness; anxiety; preoccupation; fatigue; guilt and fear of penalty; coercion; or incentive to testify falsely. These factors must be considered in the evaluation of the reliability of patient-reported memories.

immediate memory

Memory for events or information in the last few hours or days. Brain damage that limits one's ability to store new information may impair immediate memory but have no effect on memories of the distant past.
Synonym: short-term memory See: digit span test

impaired memory

A state in which a person is unable to remember or recall bits of information or behavioral skills. Impaired memory may be attributed to pathophysiological or situational causes that are either temporary or permanent.

implicit memory

Recall that is preserved when the patient is given a cue to help retrieve information but deficient without such cues.
Synonym: nondeclarative memory

incidental memory

The mental storage of information that occurs passively (i.e., without conscious effort).

long-term memory

Recall of experiences or of information acquired in the distant past.

It includes both explicit memory and procedural memory.

nondeclarative memory

Implicit memory.

procedural memory

The ability to recall how to perform activities or functions, e.g., how to brush one's teeth or ride a skateboard. This type of memory is often preserved when other memory functions are lost.
See: declarative memory

recovered memory

A memory recalled after having been forgotten. Recall may be the result of psychotherapy or suggestion. Not all instances of recovered memory are accurate (some are the result of suggestion).
See: false memory

remote memory

Recollection of information that was stored in the distant past.

retrograde memory

Retrograde amnesia.

selective memory

The recollection only of particular aspects of an event or experience; limited recall.

short-term memory

Immediate memory.

sensory memory

The momentary storage in the brain of images or sensations just felt, heard, seen, smelled, or tasted. Sensory memories typically last only a few seconds.

spatial memory

The ability to recall three-dimensional objects or places, e.g., the location of an object in space, the position of one object in relation to another, or the correct path through a maze.

topographic memory

1. The ability to recall the contours, design, shape, or structure of a previously experienced environment.
2. The ability to hold in the mind a map of a person, place, or thing.

working memory

The ability to store and use those facts and ideas necessary for performing immediate tasks.

Explicit memory

Conscious recall of facts and events that is classified into episodic memory (involves time and place) and semantic memory (does not involve time and place). For example, an amnesiac may remember he has a wife (semantic memory), but cannot recall his last conversation with her (episodic memory).
Mentioned in: Amnesia
References in periodicals archive ?
Additionally, despite the prevailing view that the MTL underlies explicit memory, studies have been reported which show that some forms of declarative memory are independent of the activation of the hippocampus.
The Internet is an interactive communication medium that facilitates the search for information (VAN NOORT; WILLEMSEN, 2012); this research investigates whether interactivity antecedes the formation of explicit memory and identifies which Internet interactivity factors facilitate the search and recovery of information that form explicit memory (PALLER et al.
While their attention was divided, the younger people performed as their elders did - better on implicit than explicit memory.
The adolescents may not have reached the same level of explicit memory ability compared to the young adults.
The analysis was re-run to control for the effects of explicit memory.
Well-rehearsed religious and spiritual activities that do not rely heavily on explicit memory are more engaging.
More recently, a number of studies have provided results that support "the view that implicit memory is not unitary and can be fractionated like episodic or explicit memory tasks" (Wilson & Zangwill, 2002).
The dichotomy between implicit and explicit memory systems using changes in viewpoint, however, has not yet been investigated in infants.
Explicit memory for material presented before drug administration and previously acquired knowledge was not affected.
Such approaches are based on explicit memory, which allows us to remember lecture points or the rules of a game, and patients with schizophrenia have severely impaired explicit memory.
Vicary found that the participants with Williams syndrome showed a similar profile during an explicit memory task, when compared to a group of individuals matched for mental age.

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