culture

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culture

 [kul´cher]
1. the propagation of microorganisms or of living tissue cells in special media conducive to their growth.
2. to induce such propagation.
3. the product of such propagation.
4. the shared values, beliefs, and practices of a particular group of people, which are transmitted from one generation to the next and are identified as patterns that guide the thinking and action of the group members. adj., adj cul´tural.
cell culture the maintenance or growth of animal cells in vitro, or a culture of such cells.
blood culture microbiologic examination of a blood sample to check for presence of microorganisms.
continuous flow culture the cultivation of bacteria in a continuous flow of fresh medium to maintain bacterial growth in logarithmic phase.
enrichment culture one grown on a medium, usually liquid, that has been supplemented to encourage the growth of a given type of organism.
hanging-drop culture a culture in which the material to be cultivated is inoculated into a drop of fluid attached to a coverglass inverted over a hollow slide.
primary culture a cell or tissue culture made by direct transfer from a natural source to an artificial medium.
selective culture one grown on a medium, usually solid, that has been supplemented to encourage the growth of a single species of microorganism. It may also include substances that inhibit the growth of other species.
shake culture a culture made by inoculating warm liquid agar culture medium in a tube and shaking to distribute contents evenly. Incubation of the resolidified culture allows the development of separated colonies; especially adaptable to obligate anaerobes.
slant culture one made on the surface of solidified medium in a tube which has been tilted to provide a greater surface area for growth.
culture-specific syndrome folk illnesses that are unique to a particular culture or geographical area. Each illness has a cluster of symptoms, signs, and behavioral changes that are recognized by members of the culture; usually, they also have a range of symbolic meanings and culturally agreed-upon treatments. Anorexia nervosa and Type A behavior pattern are examples of syndromes specific to industrialized cultures.
stab culture a culture into which the organisms are introduced by thrusting a needle deep into the medium.
streak culture a culture in which the surface of a solid medium is inoculated by drawing across it, in a zig-zag fashion, a wire inoculating loop carrying the inoculum.
suspension culture a culture in which cells multiply while suspended in a suitable medium.
tissue culture the maintaining or growing of tissue, organ primordia, or the whole or part of an organ in vitro so as to preserve its architecture and function.
type culture a culture of a species of microorganism usually maintained in a central collection of type cultures.

cul·ture

(kŭl'chŭr),
1. The propagation of microorganisms on or in media of various kinds.
2. A mass of microorganisms on or in a medium.
3. The propagation of mammalian cells, that is, cell culture.
4. A set of beliefs, values, artistic, historical, and religious characteristics, and customs common to a community or nation.
Synonym(s): cultivation
[L. cultura, tillage, fr. colo, pp. cultus, to till]

culture

(kŭl′chər)
n.
Biology
a. The growing of microorganisms, tissue cells, or other living matter in a specially prepared nutrient medium.
b. Such a growth or colony, as of bacteria.
tr.v. cul·tured, cul·turing, cul·tures
a. To grow (microorganisms or other living matter) in a specially prepared nutrient medium.
b. To use (a substance) as a medium for culture: culture milk.

culture

Agriculture
The growth of comestibles.

Microbiology
adjective Pertaining to a culture—e.g., culture plate.
 
noun A general term for a propagation of microorganisms—e.g., bacteria, fungi, viruses—in/on a growth media, or specimen so cultured, and the medium—agar, broth, etc.—in which it is being grown, under controlled conditions.
 
verb To place a specimen—which may contain pathogenic microorganisms—in a growth medium, under conditions intended to optimise the proliferation of those pathogens.

Molecular biology
The growth of cells.

Sexology
A swinging term for a particular type of sexual fetish or “art”.

Social medicine
A way of life for a particular ethnic group, which may include a language of communication, customs (rites, rituals), religion, lifestyle, shared system of values, beliefs, morals and social norms (patterns of behaviour), which can include dress and diet.

Vox populi
The training, development and refinement of mind, tastes and manners; the condition of being thus trained and refined; the intellectual side of civilisation.

HIV test

Various tests have been used to detect HIV and production of antibodies thereto; some HTs shown below are no longer actively used, but are listed for completeness and context. See HIV, Immunoblot.
HIV tests
Culture The direct culture of HIV in the appropriate cell–human lymphocytes
IgA assay An immunoblot-type assay which allows the early diagnosis in infants of perinatal HIV infection
p24 antigen The measurement of HIV's p24 antigen by immunoassay, confirmation by neutralization; very low sensitivity
PCR Amplification of HIV nucleotide sequences by PCR, used to confirm indeterminate Western blot results
RNA testing
Western blot An immune assay which detects specific antibodies to HIV antigens, including p24–often the first antibody to appear; low-risk individuals with a persisting indeterminant Western blot at 3 months may be regarded as negative and require no further followup

cul·ture

(kŭl'chŭr)
1. The propagation of microorganisms on or in various media.
2. A mass of microorganisms on or in a medium.
3. The propagation of mammalian cells, i.e., cell culture.
See: cell culture
4. A set of beliefs, values, artistic, historical, and religious characteristics; customs common to a community or nation.
Synonym(s): cultivation.
[L. cultura, tillage, fr. colo, pp. cultus, to till]

culture

See BACTERIAL CULTURE, TISSUE CULTURE.

Culture

A laboratory procedure in which a sample from a wound, the blood or other body fluid is taken from an infected person. The sample is placed in conditions under which bacteria can grow. If bacteria grow, identification tests are done to determine the bacteria species causing the infection.

cul·ture

(kŭl'chŭr)
Propagation of microorganisms on or in any media.
[L. cultura, tillage, fr. colo, pp. cultus, to till]
References in periodicals archive ?
To reduce the subject/tissue variability, we expressed data as the mean SI [ratio between the cytokine concentration in culture medium of treated explant cultures and the corresponding untreated cultures (0.1% ethanol) in each experiment].
To demonstrate tissue integrity in our explant cultures, we verified that [beta]-hCG secretion did not change significantly in p-NP-treated versus control cultures.
Effect of steroid hormones on the expression of ABCC1 (A), ABCC9 (B), SLCO4C1 (C), and SLCO5A1 (D) mRNAs in endometrial explant cultures. Endometrial explants from gilts on day 12 of the estrous cycle were cultured in DMEM/F-12 in the presence of control (C), [E.sub.2] (E), [P.sub.4] (P), [E.sub.2] + [P.sub.4] (PE), [E.sub.2] + [P.sub.4] +ICI (I, an estrogen receptor antagonist) (PEI), or [E.sub.2] + [P.sub.4] +RU (R, a progesterone receptor antagonist) (PER) at 37[degrees]C for 24 h.
The fetal human testis explant system used in the present studies initially used conditions identical to those used for the rat explant cultures, but was then modified to include earlier time points.
The results of this study indicated that porcine ES-like cells could be established not only from in vivo embryos but also from in vitro produced embryos by whole explant culture. Moreover, porcine ES-like cell lines from in vivo embryos could be maintained in long term (over 56 passages) without losing their pluripotency and differentiation ability.
Furthermore, pH lower or higher than 5.8 was also found to affect formation of shoots from explant cultures. It was observed that explant cultures with pH of the growth media adjusted to 5.8, 4.8, and 6.8 yielded percentage of shoot formation of 46.7%, 33.3%, and 20.0%, respectively (Table 5).
It should be noted that the experiments reported here were performed in normoxia (21 % O2, 5% CO2) conditions employed for studies of human cartilage explant cultures. While there are multiple reports that cartilage obtained from OA patients express COX-2, and spontaneously produce PGE2 ex vivo, (2,21,22) there are no studies to confirm robust production of PGE2 by human OA cartilage in vivo.
Gao reported a study in which exogenous neurotrophic factors were applied to postnatal rat cochlear explant cultures that had been exposed to different classes of ototoxins; neurotrophin-4/5, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 were found to protect spiral ganglion neurons from ototoxicity induced by gentamicin, sodium salicylate, and cisplatin.
Serumfree, organotypic retinal explant cultures have previously been used in studies on hereditary retinal diseases (Caffe et al., 2001; Sahaboglu et al., 2014) and for drug screening purposes (Paquet-Durand et al., 2010).
Such explant cultures were recently used to study the mineralizing process in Haliotis varia abalone (Suja & Dharmaraj 2005).
Studies on the growth of the limbal stem cells showed that they have a greater growth potential in explant cultures and higher clonogenicity when co-cultured on irradiated murine 3T3 fibroblast as feeder layers and their proliferative potential is resistant to tumour promoting phorbol esters.