On May 24, 2016, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene notified CDC of two cases of Exophiala dermatitidis
bloodstream infections among patients with malignancies who had received care from a single physician at an outpatient oncology facility (clinic A).
For example, the 2002 outbreak of fungal meningitis was caused by injected steroids contaminated with Exophiala dermatitidis
, and the 2012-2015 outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections resulted from methylprednisolone contaminated by Exserohilum rostratum (3,23).
They found that about 33 percent of the samples tested positive for fungi, with the common one being Exophiala dermatitidis
and phaeomuriformis, two types of black yeast, and dishwashers the most likely location where they were breeding.
First isolation of Exophiala dermatitidis
from a dog: identification by molecular analysis.
A 2002 outbreak of meningitis and sacroiliitis attributed to compounded corticosteroid injections contaminated with Exophiala dermatitidis
was also reported (30).
The study showed 62pc of the dishwashers contained fungi on the rubber band in the door, out of which, 56pc included the polyextremotolerant black yeasts Exophiala dermatitidis
Elucidation of distribution patterns and possible infection routes of the neutropic black yeast Exophiala dermatitidis
marcescens infections associated with betamethasone injection, Pseudomonas putida septicemia caused by use of contaminated flush solutions in a special-care nursery, Burkholderia cepacia infections caused by contaminated intravenous flush solutions, Pseudomonas fluorescens bloodstream infections associated with a heparin/saline flush, and Exophiala dermatitidis
infections caused by injection of contaminated steroids (4-10; Table 1).