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Psychiatry A heterogenous group of disorders characterized by progressive mental disturbances in thought, perception, affect, behavior, and communication that last longer than 6 months, which may be accompanied by psychotic Sx, bizarre behavior, or by negative–deficit Sx, including low levels of emotional arousal, mental activity, and social drive; schizophrenia is a diagnosis of exclusion–none of its clinical, biochemical, neuroradiologic, pathophysiologic, and psychologic features are sufficient to establish a definitive diagnosis DSM-IV Clinical Disordered thought processes and abnormal behavior–eg, hallucinations, delusions, social withdrawal, inappropriate or "blunted" affect, verbal incoherence, cognitive deficits, inappropriate or blunted affect Types Catatonic, paranoid, disorganized, undifferentiated, residual Management Antipsychotics are used to
1. ↓ hallucinations and delusions, and other thought disturbances and improve Sx of withdrawal and apathy.
2. Control Sx through maintenance therapy, and.
3. As long-term prophylaxis, neuroleptics include haloperidol and clozapine  See Cultural schizophrenia, Disorganized schizophrenia, Fugue, Multiple personality, Paranoid schizophrenia. Cf Schizoid personality disorder.
Schizophrenia-diagnostic criteria1
A Characteristic Sx: 2 or more2 of following, for a significant portion of 1+ months
 Disorganized (or catatonic) behavior
 Disorganized speech (incoherence)
 Negative symptoms, eg flattening of affect, loss of volition
B Social/occupational dysfunction  
C Duration 6+ months in duration with 1+ months of 'active' symptoms, defined by criteria A
Exclusions Symptoms are not better accounted for by
D Other mental disorders, eg Schizoaffective disorder or Mood disorder with psychotic features
E Other conditions, eg substances(medication, substance of abuse) and/or general medical conditions  
1Modified from Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed, Washington, DC, Am Psychiatric Assn, 1994
2Only one of criteria A is required if the delusions are bizarre, or hallucinations include 1 + 'voices in head'
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
USTR issued exclusions for 10 goods described in various Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) subheadings, including plastic containers, polyester yarn and steel pet cages, among other goods, according to a notice published in the Federal Register on Aug.
Suspensions for physical attacks on primary school staff in Kirklees were are at record levels, with 322 in 2017/18, up from 266 in 2016/17 - as were exclusions for verbal attacks on other pupils (27).
A Government report has revealed that increases in fixed period pupil exclusions during the 2017/18 school year "particularly in Hartlepool, Stockton and Redcar and Cleveland" had driven an increase in national rates.
A rising number of exclusions in the North East have led to the increase and there has been a 13% rise in permanent exclusions for assaults against an adult in a year.
The answer to that question often depends on the presence of the so-called "contract exclusion" contained in many D&O policies, how insurance carriers apply the contract exclusion, and how courts interpret the contract exclusion.
Permanent exclusions amounted to twice the national average last year, although this is an improvement from the previous year when it had the highest rate in the country.
There were 339 exclusions lasting five days or fewer in Cardiff's primary schools in 2017-18 - which meant a total of 526-and-a-half school days were lost for these pupils.
There were 339 exclusions lasting five days or fewer in Cardiff's primary schools in 2017/18 - which meant a total of 526-and-a-half school days for these pupils were lost.
exclusions since 2 P bei persistent disruptive behaviour, which includes disobedience and continual violation of school rules, has seen the biggest jump in exclusions, with numbers up by in three years.
Exclusions alcohol use by 25% There were more than 346,000 instances when students were either sent home permanently or for a fixed period during 2015-2016, according to the latest government figures.
were just exclusions for 2015-16 A spokesperson for the Department for Education said: "While exclusions can be used as a sanction for schools to deal with poor behaviour, permanent exclusion should only be used as a last resort, in response to a serious breach, or persistent breaches, of the school's behaviour policy."