Having studied the enclaves/exclaves issue for many years, I tend to accept the definition of Dr Honore Marc Catudal from his monograph The Exclave
Problem of Western Europe (University of Alabama Press, 1979): An exclave
[he tends to use the terms 'exclave
' and 'enclave' interchangeably] is a part of one state completely surrounded by the territory of another.
Historically, there were a surprising number of exclaves
in England and Wales.
In a mixture of theoretical studies and case studies, they consider such topics as geographical and historical perspectives, Switzerland's German and Italian islands Buingen and Campione d'Italia, the Spanish exclave
of Llivia, the enclaves of Sastavci and Dubrovnik challenging the post-Yugoslavian borders, and the exclave
Voters in the French Caribbean exclaves
of Martinique and French Guiana have rejected a proposal for local government to have more autonomy from France.
The discussion centres on the production and use of urban space under the conditions created by the conflict, including, for example, the so-called security fence, urban enclaves, exclaves
, the approach to monuments and no-man's-land, and the instrumentalisation of infrastructures, which leads to the crass juxtaposition of highly developed and impoverished urban spaces.
Spain remains an important European transit point to Europe for narcotics originating in Latin America and for hashish from Morocco, especially via its North African exclaves
of Ceuta and Melilla.
But, then again, for many centuries, Lindisfarne itself, through its ecclesiastic links with St Cuthbert and St Aidan, was also, as an exclave
, part of the County Palatine of Durham.