eutectic mixture of local anesthetics


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eutectic mixture of local anesthetics

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EMLA

A topical anesthetic cream composed of a mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine. A thick layer is applied to the skin to be anesthetized, covered with an occlusive bandage, and left in place for 1–2 hr. This anesthetizes the skin to a depth of about 5 mm so that superficial skin lesions can be removed or needle penetrations or minor surgeries can be performed, esp. in pediatric patients. Patients will not be aware of a needle piercing the skin; however, they will feel any tissue irritation caused by the fluid injected.
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An Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics (EMLA) cream is one of these anesthetics, since its introduction has been found to be an effective topical anesthetic agent (3, 5-7, 10).
The cream contains a eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, consisting of 2.5% lidocaine/prilocaine in a 1:1 solution.
EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics) consists of lidocaine and prilocaine, two ordinary numbling medicines that, combined in a one-to-one ratio, produce a liquid emulsion that releases anesthetic through the skin to nerve endings.
Tetracaine is an ester- type local anesthetic whereas lidocaine is an amide-type local anesthetic.1 This eutectic mixture is often used as an alternative to the previously used prilocaine-lidocaine eutectic mixture of local anesthetics. The advantage of tetracaine- lidocaine mixture is the relative quicker onset of anesthesia in comparison to prilocaine-lidocaine eutectic mixture which contains prilocaine and lidocaine in a ratio of 1:1.2 The tetracaine-lidocaine mixture usually achieves good topical anesthesia after 20 to 30 minutes of occlusion and minor surgical procedures can be performed subsequently.
Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) appears to have no effect in newborns.