The conjecture that resulted, dubbed the hydrogen hypothesis by Martin and Muller in the March 5 Nature, offers a novel explanation for the origin of both hydrogenosomes and mitochondria and may also shake up beliefs about the birth of eukaryotic cells
Schematic representation of the origin of eukaryotic cells
(A) and dynamic events of bacterial division machineries and mitochondria during endosymbiosis with phagocytosis and vesicle-division machineries (B).
Although ECIS technology has not been previously applied in the clinical microbiology laboratory, it has been shown to be effective in monitoring the cytotoxic effects of viruses on eukaryotic cells
, and unpublished experiments in our laboratory have shown that it is capable of detecting bacterial induced cell damage.
Heterologous spirochete-membrane attachments to eukaryotic cells
in an anoxic, microoxic-to-oxic gradient environment are described here.
The Martin-Koonin hypothesis (MKH) of eukaryotic cell
origins satisfyingly synthesizes a wide range of conflicting data.
Yet all evidence suggests that these building blocks of the eukaryotic cell
were themselves distinct cells with a long period of independent descent and with strikingly different ecologies and physiologies (Margulis 1970, 1981; Schwartz and Dayhoff 1978; Yang et al.
In contrast, a eukaryotic cell
is like a factory complex, composed of a several connected work spaces: a single control room and specialize rooms for receiving, manufacturing, shipping, waste disposal, etc.
"The eukaryotic cell
was an intruder in the mix, feeding on bacteria," Deretic says.
The application is directed towards a double-stranded synthetic gene comprising multiple copies of a structural gene region having a nucleotide sequence which is identical to a nucleotide sequence of a target gene in a eukaryotic cell
. The multiple copies of structural gene region are separated by a sequence of nucleotides that is 50-100 or 100-500 nucleotides in length."Benitec and CSIRO are pleased to have made progress with this application and remain committed to achieving allowance of the other pending US continuation applications in the '099 patent family" said Sue MacLeman.
Me-reschkovsky (1855-1921) have considered mutual aid "a factor of evolution." They produced a theory to account for the evolution of the eukaryotic cell
as a result of symbiosis between bacteria (symbiogenesis); theirs was a forerunner of the serial endosymbiosis theory developed by L.
Their DNA gel, at only 10 microns in width, is roughly the size of a eukaryotic cell
, the type of cell of which humans are made.
Chromatin is the combination of DNA and proteins that makes up the contents of the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell