Final report on the saftey assessment of methyl paraben, ethyl paraben
, propyl paraben and butyl paraben.
The LODs for phenols were generally lower than those used in NHANES (LODs: methyl and ethyl paraben = 0.
4 [micro]g/g, respectively), although the comparisons of ethyl and butyl parabens may be unstable due to the small proportion of girls with detectable concentrations of ethyl paraben (55% in HERMOSA, 25% in NHANES) and butyl paraben (49% in HERMOSA, 8% in NHANES).
2) and ethyl paraben increasing by a nonsignificant 47.
Specifically, the following combinations co-occur often in consumer products (number of products in parentheses): methyl paraben and 2-phenoxyethanol (1,872); linalool and limonene (1,850); methyl paraben and ethyl paraben
(1,329); ethyl paraben
and 2-phenoxyethanol (1,081); methyl paraben, ethyl paraben
, and 2-phenoxyethanol (1,059).
In 2012, we analyzed urine specimens for free and total (conjugated plus free) concentrations of nine compounds: BPA, butyl paraben, ethyl paraben, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,5-dichlorophenol.
Ethyl paraben could not be reliably quantitated because it was a component of the urine preservative added to prevent bacterial growth.
Ethyl, propyl, and butyl parabens evoked estrogenic responses in sexually immature rainbow trout, although the estrogenic potency of ethyl paraben was weaker than that of propyl and butyl paraben (Pedersen et al.
The pharmacokinetic study on the blood-concentration after the administration of ethyl paraben or para-hydroxybenzoic acid.
NF Description: ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate.
phenoxyethanol (and) methyl paraben (and) ethyl paraben
(and) propyl paraben (and) butyl paraben)
These compounds were bisphenol A -- found in plastics -- and triclosan, benzophenone-3 and propyl, methyl, butyl and ethyl parabens
, found in personal-hygiene products and some foods and medications.