He covers esophageal anatomy and physiology, transnasal esophagoscopy, the video-fluoroscopic esophagram, high-resolution esophageal manometry, ambulatory pH and impedance monitoring, esophagitis, upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction, esophageal webs
and rings and diverticula, esophageal motility disorders, esophageal stricture, hiatal hernia, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal neoplasia.
This subtype sometimes develops as part of a group of symptoms, which can include atrophic glossitis, esophageal webs
or strictures, and microcytic hypochromic anemia (Plummer-Vinson syndrome) (11).
Surgical anastomosis, radiation therapy, Schatzki's rings, esophageal webs
, corrosive injury, peptic injury, photodynamic therapy [1, 2], and endoscopic surgery can always induce benign esophageal strictures [3-5].
Macroscopic findings are nonspecific but include a friable mucosa, whitish papules, esophageal webs
, and strictures that can be multiple in numbers [3, 5, 6].
The main clinical features of PVS include the triad of iron deficiency anemia, cervical dysphagia and esophageal webs. The dysphagia is usually painless and initially limited to solids and sometimes associated with weight loss.
Esophageal webs and strictures can be detected by radiographic methods or endoscopy.
Hypopharyngeal and proximal esophageal webs
and strictures have become increasingly common with the increased use of concurrent chemo- and radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies.
Benign esophageal stenosis caused by Schatzki rings (B rings) or by peptic strictures is the most common cause of food impaction, followed by esophageal webs
, extrinsic compression, surgical anastomosis, esophagitis (eg, eosinophilic esophagitis), and motor disorders, such as achalasia.
(25) There is also an association between cervical esophageal webs
and gastroesophageal reflux.
Meant to be accessible and affordable, the atlas covers endoscopy techniques and normal anatomy; esophageal webs
, rings, and strictures; hernia and gastroesophageal reflux disease; motility disorders of the esophagus; portal hypertension; ulcers; tumors; gastrojejunostomy; corrosive injury; uncommon inflammatory lesions; Mallory-Weiss syndrome; Dieulafoy's lesion; gastric antral vascular ectasia; foreign bodies; tracheoesophageal fistula; and miscellaneous issues.
DISCUSSION The association of postcricoid dysphagia, upper esophageal webs
, and iron deficiency anemia is known as Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS) in the United States and Paterson-Brown Kelly syndrome in the United Kingdom.
Upper esophageal webs
are more common in women than men.