The most important parasitoid of apple ermine moth in Asia, Herpestomus brunicornis, is a solitary, oligophagous, univoltine parasitoid, passing the fall, winter, and spring as an adult.
Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), causes only about 1% parasitism in European apple ermine moth populations, (Junnikkala I960; Balchowsky 1966).
There is a similarity in a taxonomic composition and the suppressive role of the parasitoid complexes attacking the apple ermine moth in its native Asia and Europe.
This parasitoid is also a larval parasitoid of the apple ermine moth, producing 18% parasitism in Japan (Lee & Pemberton 2005).
This parasitoid has not been known to attack apple ermine moth in Europe (Affolter & Carl, 1986) or Japan (Shima H.
The Natural Enemies of the Apple Ermine Moth Yponomeuta malinellus in Europe.
Biology and ecology of Herpestomus brunnicornis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a potential biological control agent of the apple ermine moth (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).
Larval parasitoids of the apple ermine moth, Yponomeuta malinellus in Korea, Japan, and China.
Seasonal phenology and stage-specific parasitism of the apple ermine moth, Yponomeuta malinellus Zeller, in Korea.
Parasitoid complex of the bird cherry ermine moth Yponomeuta evonymellus in Korea.
Introduction and establishment of parasitoids for biological control of the apple ermine moth, Yponomeuta malinellus (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), in the Pacific Northwest.