Another Cochrane systematic review conducted by Freitas ER13
have however found no evidence of benefit from IS in reducing PPC's and in decreasing the negative effects on pulmonary function in patients undergoing CABG whereas KatsuraM14 et al while highlighting the limitations of the reviewed studies, have concluded in their very recent Cochrane Systematic review that preoperative respiratory therapies were associated with a reduction of postoperative atelectasis, pneumonia, and duration of hospital stay in adults undergoing cardiac and major abdominal surgery.
Subsequently, researchers have reported that estriol stimulates only "estrogen receptor beta" (ER13
), a receptor that maintains normal structure and function of estrogen responsive cells.
This is important because ER13
mediates a bone sparing effect via an increase in the ratio of OPG to RANKL, in a manner differentially affected by steroids other than [E.sub.2], including dihydroepiandrosterone (Wang et al.
2009) have demonstrated that BPA binds to and activates the estrogen receptor (ERa and ER13
), although the affinity of BPA for these receptors was approximately 10,000-fold weaker with respect to estradiol (Gould et al.
To evaluate ERE-mediated transcriptional activity of ERa and ER13
, we examined promoter activation in Ishikawa, HeLa, and HepG2 cells.