epitope

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determinant

 [de-ter´mĭ-nant]
a factor that establishes the nature of an entity or event.
antigenic determinant a site on the surface of an antigen molecule to which a single antibody molecule binds; generally an antigen has several or many different antigenic determinants and reacts with many different antibodies. Called also epitope.
 Antigens contain antigenic determinants (epitopes) and antibodies contain antibody combining sites (paratopes). From Copstead and Banasik, 2000.
hidden determinant an antigenic determinant located in an unexposed region of a molecule so that it is prevented from interacting with receptors on lymphocytes, or with antibody molecules, and is unable to induce an immune response; it may appear following stereochemical alterations of molecular structure.
immunogenic determinant the part of an immunogenic molecule that interacts with a helper T cell in triggering antibody production as opposed to the antigenic determinant or hapten, which interacts with B cells.

ep·i·tope

(ep'i-tōp),
The simplest form of an antigenic determinant on a complex antigenic molecule, which can combine with antibody or T cell receptor.
[epi- + -tope]

epitope

/ep·i·tope/ (ep´ĭ-tōp) an antigenic determinant (see under determinant ) of known structure.

epitope

(ĕp′ĭ-tōp′)
n.
A localized region on the surface of an antigen capable of eliciting an immune response and of combining with a specific antibody to counter that response.

epitope

[ep′itōp]
Etymology: Gk epi + topos, place

epitope

Any site on a biomolecule (antigenic determinant) which can evoke antibody formation. The minimum size of a molecule capable of evoking antibody formation is about 1 kD; if the molecule is smaller, as with haptens, it may evoke an immune response by associating with a carrier protein. Large non-polymeric molecules can have many epitopes. When the van der Waals surfaces of proteins are constructed by X-ray crystallography, epitopic sites appear to require prominently exposed regions—“hills” and “ridges” with surface rigidity. More flexible sites are less antigenic.

epitope

Immunology Any site on a molecule–an antigenic determinant that can evoke antibody formation. See Idiotype, Immunogenicity.

ep·i·tope

(ep'i-tōp)
The simplest form of an antigenic determinant, on a complex antigenic molecule, that can combine with antibody or T-cell receptor.

epitope

An immunologically active discrete site on an ANTIGEN to which an ANTIBODY or a B or T cell receptor actually binds. See also LINEAR EPITOPE and CONFORMATIONAL EPITOPE.

epitope

an antigenic determinant which interacts with an IMMUNOGLOBULIN or T-CELL receptor.

epitope

protein residue at the surface of a microorganism or non-self cell; triggers host immune response

epitope

see antigenic determinant.

continuous epitope
contiguous amino acid sequences in a linear array.
discontinuous epitope
one in which amino acids are in close proximity in the folded protein, but distant when unfolded.
References in periodicals archive ?
In patients under LCZ696 therapy, BNP testing with immunoassays utilizing antibodies with epitopes comprising the site [Arg.
The epitopes present in these proteins exist as conformational and linear epitopes.
The serum, which was provided by cooperators at the University of California Davis, allowed the team to match previously unknown epitopes within the major allergenic proteins known to be common to a variety of nut and peanut allergies.
A large number of web servers are available freely on net for the prediction of linear epitopes of proteins from infecting organisms.
The objective was to identify the epitopes of NAbs, as these should represent immunogens potentially able to indicate antigens that are capable of inducing antibodies upon immunization for HIV-1 vaccine.
Researchers say their next steps are to broaden and refine their chemical mixture for selecting and identifying possible epitopes for other kinds of HLA because the current set of experiments analyzes only one of the most common HLA-type molecules in whites.
For this study, researchers examined whether epitopes present in the seasonal flu strains between 1988 and 2008 were also found in the existing H1N1 strain.
For MHC class I antigen-restricted epitopes essential for CD8+ T cell activation and CMI, HA of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus contains HLAA* 0201-restricted GLFGAIAGFI(6), which is present also in the HA of A/ New Caledonia/20/1999 (H1N1) and A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1) viruses.
We know that as many as 90 structures (epitopes) of the spliceosome protein autoantigens (Sm and nRNP) can be recognized by autoantibody (in both man and animal models), (6,7) while more than 20 epitopes are found in the 60 kD Ro system.
In vivo vaccination of mice with such Ii-Key/MHC class II epitope hybrids enhances immune responses to antigenic epitopes from cancer-related antigens for breast, colon, and ovarian carcinomas, melanoma and HIV.
The linear IgE-binding epitopes of the Ara h2 allergen have been mapped using overlapping peptides and serum IgE from a population of patients known to be sensitized to peanuts.