sodium cromoglycate, nedocromil sodium, pemirolast, and lodoxamide; (3) Dual acting agents - they have both antihistaminic and mast cell stabilizing properties, e.g., olopatadine, ketotifen, azelastine, and epinastine
; (4) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, e.g., ketorolac, diclofenac, and flurbiprofen; (5) Corticosteroids, e.g., prednisolone, hydrocortisone, fluorometholone, loteprednol, and desonide.
The four ophthalmic agents in this class are alcaftadine (Lastacaft), azelastine (Optivar), emedastine (Emadine), and epinastine
Pflugfelder, "Effect of topical ophthalmic epinastine
and olopatadine on tear volume in mice," Eye and Contact Lens, vol.
Among topical antihistamines and anti-allergy drugs, ketotifen, olopatadine and epinastine
are category C drugs; sodium cromoglycate and emedastine are in category B.
Another patent discloses a pharmaceutical composition comprising of aqueous solution of epinastine
for topical administration which prevents occurrence of Late phase response thereby provides long lasting effect in the treatment of allergic conjunctiva.
In severe cases, or those unresponsive to the above treatment, the patient should be referred to their GP or a therapeutically-qualified optometrist for more potent anti-allergic medications (prescription only medicines); such as olopatadine or epinastine
for SAC and azelastine for PAC, which exhibit both mast cell stabilising and antihistamine properties.
The researchers also found that treating the crickets with a chemical called epinastine
, which interferes with the invertebrate equivalent of the adrenaline pathway, abolished the winner effect, suggesting that this adrenaline-like system is involved in aggression increase.
Healthcare supplier Perrigo Company (Nasdaq:PRGO) reported on Tuesday the receipt of final approval for Epinastine
HCl ophthalmic solution, 0.05%, the generic version of Elestat.
A double-blind, single-dose, crossover comparison of cetirizine, ebastine, epinastine
, fexofenadine, terfenadine, and loratadine versus placebo: Suppression of histamineinduced wheal and flare response for 24 h in healthy male subjects.
HCl ophthalmic solution 0.05%, Allergan Inc.)
Inagaki N, Nagao M, Nakamura N, Kawasaki H, Igeta K, Musoh K, Nagai H (2000) Evaluation of anti-scratch properties of oxatomide and epinastine