The new research published in the journal 'Cell Reports' titled 'The Generation of Time in the Hippocampal Memory System' builds on the discovery by Nobel prize winners May-Britt and Edvard Moser that an input region to the hippocampus - the lateral entorhinal
cortex (LEC) - has time ramping cells that slowly change their rates of activity over hundreds of seconds; and on the discovery that hippocampal time cells fire at separate times in a sequence.
Both are located in roughly the center of the brain, near other regions of the brain involved with memory, such as the entorhinal
cortex and the amygdala.
A key component of this internal satnav is a region of the brain known as the entorhinal
At present, it is considered that the medial temporal lobe (including the entorhinal
cortex, the side olfactory cortex, the side hippocampal cortex, and the hippocampus), the prefrontal lobe, and the precuneus are important areas related to episodic memory (12).
In slices from the hippocampal and entorhinal
cortex, the application of non-specific inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or a selective neuronal NOS prevented low [Mg.sup.++]-induced epileptic activity.
Secondary outcomes were the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale sum of boxes (CDR-sb) a memory composite measure, activities of daily living, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and MRI of the hippocampus and entorhinal
By examining mouse brains' medial entorhinal
cortex, researchers discovered neurons that turn on like a clock when they wait.
Scientists have recently identified a tiny area of the brain called the entorhinal
cortex that is the hub for navigation control, and it seems to be the first part of the brain affected by Alzheimer's.
Place cells in the hippocampus and grid cells in the neighboring entorhinal
cortex form a circuit that allows orientation and navigation.
For many years, memory loss was treated as a singular disorder, but now scientists realized that Alzheimer's disease begins in a part of the brain called the entorhinal
cortex, which lies at the foot of the hippocampus while the age-related memory loss, a far more common memory disorder, began within the hippocampus itself, in a region called the dentate gyrus.
Participants were evaluated using a variety of biomarkers, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-[beta] and phosphorylated-tau, MRI measures (hippocampal and entorhinal
cortex volume), cognitive test scores and APOE genotype.