The number of IELs in CD is usually more than 40 lymphocytes/100 enterocytes
and is one of the important histological features.
In pirarucu, the latter function is most likely performed in the S3 region, where absorption vacuoles were often observed in the apical cytoplasm of enterocytes
, which can be indicative of protein absorption by pinocytosis (Ezeasor & Stokoe, 1981; Carrasson et al.
sup] This reduces the amount of iron absorbed by enterocytes
, released by hepatocytes, and recycled from macrophages, and finally reduces transferrin levels in the bloodstream.
However, the iron from different states such as absorbed iron in duodenal enterocytes
or stored within hepatocytes or recycled by macrophages; ultimately pass from cytoplasm of cells to the transferrin (Ganz et al.
The most striking feature of the enterocytes
of posterior intestine was noted as the presence of large and clear supranuclear vacuoles.
Sequential slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin or pankeratin showed that positive cells corresponded with enterocytes
that had sloughed into the intestinal lumen because of freeze-thaw artifact, although we cannot exclude the possibility that other cell types were present (Figure 2).
The enterotoxins are classified into thermo stable (STa and STb) and thermo labile (LT-1 and LT-2); these are responsible for causing imbalances in the absorption and secretion of electrolytes and water by the enterocytes
, leading to diarrhea, dehydration, and death of animals (MORES & MORENO, 2007).
Serotonin by acting directly through 5-HT4 (G- protein coupled receptors) located on both cholinergic interneurons and motor neurons2 on enterocytes
and indirectly via 5-HT3 receptors on mucosal nerves and vagal afferents effects the intestinal motility.
Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) is a 15-kDa cytoplasmic protein located in small intestinal enterocytes
involved in the uptake and transport of polar lipids such as fatty acids from the small-bowel lumen, which has been associated with injury to the intestinal mucosa and injury common to inflammatory bowel diseases.
Zinc oxide protects cultured enterocytes
from the damage induced by Escherichia coli.
are a good model to study the mechanisms by which polyphenols exert their antioxidant activity, because they are the first cells to interact with polyphenols during the absorption process and, consequently, they are exposed to the highest concentrations of polyphenols among all cell types in the body.
The microscopical changes observed at 6 day post infection (DPI) were mild destruction of the enterocytes
with developing schizonts in T1, stunting of villi in T2 (Figure 2), loss of villi architecture, infiltration of inflammatory cells and presence of schizonts in T3, whereas, large number of second generation schizonts and infiltration of inflammatory cells in unimmunized infected group T5 (Figure 3).