Enterobacteriaceae


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Enterobacteriaceae

 [en″ter-o-bak-tēr″e-a´se-e]
a family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria, usually motile, made up of saprophytes and plant and animal parasites of worldwide distribution, found in soil, water, and plants and in animals from insects to humans. In humans, disease is produced by both invasive action and production of toxin. Species not normally associated with disease are often opportunistic pathogens. Enterobacteriaceae have been responsible for as many as half of the nosocomial infections reported annually in the United States, most frequently by species of Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Providencia, and Serratia.

En·ter·o·bac·te·ri·a·ce·ae

(en'tĕr-ō-bak-ter'ē-ā'sē-ē),
A family of aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, nonsporeforming bacteria (order Eubacteriales) containing gram-negative rods. Some species are nonmotile, and nonmotile variants of motile species occur; the motile cells are peritrichous. These organisms grow well on artificial media. They reduce nitrates to nitrites and use glucose fermentatively with the production of acid or acid and gas. Indophenol oxidase is not produced by these organisms. They do not liquefy alginate, and pectate is liquefied only by members of one genus, Pectobacterium. This family includes many animal parasites and some plant parasites causing blights, galls, and soft rots. Some of these organisms occur as saprophytes that decompose carbohydrate-containing plant materials. The type genus is Escherichia.

Enterobacteriaceae

Microbiology A family of gram-negative, rod-shaped facultative anaerobic bacteria, most of which are motile–peritrichous flagella, oxidase-negative and have relatively simple growth requirements; Enterobacteriaceae are primarily saprobes, are widely distributed in nature in plants and animals, and are important pathogens; they are part of the intestinal flora, and popularly termed gram-negative rods–GNRs; they cause ±12 of all nosocomial infections in the US, most commonly by Escherichia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus, Providentia, and Salmonella spp; less pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae include Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, Erwinia, Hafnia, Serratia, Shigella, Yersinia spp. See Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Hafnia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Providentia, Salmonella, Serratia, Shigella, Yersinia.
References in periodicals archive ?
New Delhi Metallo-beta lactamase (NDM-1) in Enterobacteriaceae: treatment options with carbapenems compromised.
Among the 250 tested strains of Enterobacteriaceae, 20% (50/250) are ESBLs producer.
The traT and iss genes which encoded important virulence factors that are linked with human serum resistance were genetically scanned by using PCR technique for recognition of the existence of these genes in 26 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae family, it was found that 21(80.7%) of Enterobacterial isolates were contained traT gene at 288bp while only 17(65.38%) of isolates were contained iss gene at 258bp.
Thus, the total number of detected cefotaxime-resistant AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates was 15 (4.5%).
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriers typically represent the primary sources of CRE spread in healthcare settings, and all high-risk patients (e.g., elderly patients, patients in intensive care units (ICUs), immunocompromised patients and patients arriving from CRE-epidemic areas) should be screened.
However, infections with CRE have the potential to spread outside the healthcare settings and spill into the community, given that Enterobacteriaceae are a common cause of community-associated infections.
Cefepime is a poor inducer of AmpC b-lactamases, rapidly perforates through the outer cell membrane and is not thoroughly hydrolysed by the enzyme.9 Temocillin, a 6-alpha-methoxy derivative of ticarcillin is active in vitro against many AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae.10 Colistin sulphate and tigecycline are another option for the treatment of AmpC producing bacteria which are resistant to carbapenems.11
In the United States, the carbapenemase most frequently identified among Enterobacteriaceae is Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase; others are less common and are most often identified in patients who recently received health care outside the United States.
It is important to note the difference between carbapenemresistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE).
The company said the Xpert Carba-R is an on-demand molecular test for rapid and accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacteria primarily responsible for the increasing spread of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infection in the US.