endotoxin

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endotoxin

 [en´do-tok″sin]
a heat-stable toxin associated with the outer membranes of certain gram-negative bacteria, including Brucella, Neisseria, and Vibrio species. Endotoxins are not secreted but are released only when the cells are disrupted; they are less potent and less specific than the exotoxins; and they do not form toxoids. In large quantities they produce hemorrhagic shock and severe diarrhea; smaller amounts cause fever, altered resistance to bacterial infection, leukopenia followed by leukocytosis, and numerous other biologic effects.
Results of endotoxin release. From Copstead, 1995.

en·do·tox·in

(en-dō-tok'sin),
1. A bacterial toxin not freely liberated into the surrounding medium, in contrast to exotoxin.
2. The complex phospholipid-polysaccharide macromolecules that form an integral part of the outer membrane of a variety of relatively avirulent as well as virulent strains of gram-negative bacteria. The toxins are relatively heat stable, are less potent than most exotoxins, are less specific, and do not form toxoids; on injection, they may cause a state of shock and, in smaller doses, fever and leukopenia followed by leukocytosis; they have the capacity of eliciting the Shwartzman and the Sanarelli-Shwartzman phenomena.
Synonym(s): intracellular toxin

endotoxin

(ĕn′dō-tŏk′sən)
n.
A toxin produced by certain bacteria and released upon destruction of the bacterial cell.

en′do·tox′ic adj.

endotoxin

Bacterial endotoxin, lipid A Microbiology A heat-stable lipopolysaccharide on the outer coat of gram-negative bacteria–eg, those causing cholera, meningitis, pneumonia, plague, whooping cough, et al Clinical Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, fever, chills, hemorrhagic shock, dec resistance to infection

en·do·tox·in

(en'dō-tok'sin)
1. A bacterial toxin not freely liberated into the surrounding medium, in contrast to exotoxin.
2. The complex phospholipid-polysaccharide macromolecules that form an integral part of the cell wall of strains of gram-negative bacteria. The toxins may cause a state of shock accompanied by severe diarrhea, and, in smaller doses, fever and leukopenia followed by leukocytosis.
Synonym(s): intracellular toxin.

endotoxin

A poisonous lipopolysaccharide formed in the cell wall of a GRAM-NEGATIVE bacterium by means of which the organism causes its damage to the host. Compare exotoxin.

endotoxin

a poison that is produced by and remains inside a living CELL. It is only released upon disintegration of the organism. An example is the delta-endotoxin produced by the BACTERIUM Bacillus thuringiensis, and active against certain insect larvae. GENES for such toxins have been introduced into plants by GENETIC ENGINEERING with a view to conferring insect resistance upon them.

en·do·tox·in

(en'dō-tok'sin)
1. A bacterial toxin not freely liberated into the surrounding medium.
2. The complex phospholipid-polysaccharide macromolecules that form an integral part of the cell wall of strains of gram-negative bacteria; may cause shock, severe diarrhea, and fever.
Synonym(s): intracellular toxin.
References in periodicals archive ?
Endotoxin is ubiquitous in the environment and is present at higher concentrations in tobacco smoke than in smoke-free indoor air (Larsson et al.
Farnaz is an SME for Low Endotoxin Recovery topics and a key member of Endotoxin Expert Group at Roche-Genentech.
The medical device manufacturer's strategy for endotoxins should be based upon product and process knowledge.
(12,15,20,141) Moreover, even though LPS levels were higher in primary endodontic infections than in secondary/persistent infections, endotoxins were detected in all samples.
All animals were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (NC) group, endotoxin tolerance (ET) group, and endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) group.
The impact of medication on the intestinal barrier, circulating endotoxins, and the microbiota in HD patients is not well understood.
Endotoxin levels in the samples were determined using the key quality characteristics limulus amebocyte lysate.
Personal dosimetry was used to obtain data on concentrations of viable (understood here as culturable) bacteria, the total number of bioaerosol particles (viable and nonviable together), endotoxins and peptidoglycans.
LER is the masking of endotoxins in undiluted materials, thought to be attributable to combinations of specific excipients.
LBP function is to facilitate the removal of endotoxins from blood, either by carrying them to the macrophages when they are in low concentration or transporting with lipoprotein of high density (21).
* Airborne endotoxin concentrations decreased with indoor air humidity, implying that high air moisture could suppress the aerial emission of endotoxins.