Effect of temperature on development, fecundity, and life table parameters of Encarsia
citrina Craw (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a parasitoid of euonymus scale, Unaspis eounymi (Comstock), and Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) (Homoptera: Diaspididae).
Aggarwal N, Brar DS (2006) Effects of different neem preparations in comparison to synthetic insecticides on the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia
sophia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on cotton under laboratory conditions.
It can be difficult to control with chemicals but can be controlled by a parasitic wasp called Encarsia
These sap-sucking pests can do a lot of damage but a tiny encarsia
wasp hunts the young stage of the whitefly.
The minute Encarsia
formosa parasitic wasps attack whitefly larvae, causing them to blacken and die, while the nematode Heterorhabditis megidis is watered into potting compost or soil containing vine weevil grubs, which it infects with a fatal disease.
Organic pyrethrin sprays will kill adults and eggs but for best results use a biological control such as the parasitic wasp Encarsia
. Remove the sticky traps before releasing them, as Encarsia
are also attracted to the colour yellow.
Gelman, Hu, and Blackburn are also artificially rearing silverleaf whiteflies to better understand the growth requirements of wasps like Encarsia
formosa that parasitize the pests.
(1990) showed that the bark in the interior of lemon and grapefruit trees provided a partial refuge where parasitism by Aphytis was about an order of magnitude lower than in the exterior part of the tree (parasitism by Encarsia
perniciosi, a species considered to play a minor role in control, was also lower in the interior).
7-9), one of which, vouchered as slide E2016-2002, contained an adult female of Encarsia
lounsburyi (Berlese & Paoli) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and is a new host association for this species.
Los generos Encarsia
(108 especies) y Coccophagus (30 especies) son los mas diversos, estando mas ampliamente distribuidos en Mexico que los otros generos (Cuadro 1).
Los metodos mas usados para el control de esta plaga son el uso de insecticidas, practicas culturales como el deshoje, trampas de pegante amarillas y el uso de enemigos naturales como Encarsia