Note that political objects need not be actual ones; it is sufficient that the one who uses the political concept can refer to some relevant empirical content
which is verifiable by other potential users.
Peeling the motivational assumptions off the (implicit) core of abstract maximization yields a "theory" that is without empirical content.
As the cake eater and boycott examples illustrate, normative behavior is often context dependent in a way that is problematic for the empirical content of the neoclassical paradigm.
A similar demise awaited radical reductionism, the doctrine that terms carry their own empirical content
Two of the latter consider the relevance of the first Critique to the empirical content
of natural science, one of them discussing the methodological import of regulative ideas of reason, the other tracing the development of Kant's treatment of causality in his later works.
The Enlightenment strand of modernity is oriented to open-ended evidences; the fundamentalist commitment is to the preservation of the empirical contents
of the mediations.