(113) Coercion is a principal feature of legal systems attached to the polity as emergent phenomena
, epitomized in the claim of modern states to possess a monopoly over the application of force.
Tools exist for addressing these questions: in fuzzy logic and fuzzy modelling, we have the means of working, rigorously, with qualitative and approximate data and concepts; simulation experiments require an increased awareness of experimental design, but are capable of exploring a wide range of emergent phenomena
; and with etic methods, we can gain better understanding of the way agents interpret their economic setting, and form intentions towards it.
To illustrate the notion of emergent phenomena
, this section presents examples of systems where emergent phenomena
can be observed.
are often identified when the behavior of an entire system appears more coherent and directed than the behavior of individual parts of the system.
This flexibility and attention to the interactions between the PDL and its environment is a defining characteristic of what might be termed "emergent evaluation." Emergent phenomena
are driven by a small set of rules that control how systems interact with the environment (Clark, 1997).
This is so because the analyst has to account for the social construction of meaning, rationality, goals, emotions, discourse dynamics and a number of discourse emergent phenomena
such as embarrassment, humor, conflict, loss of face and many others.
Because--key point, now!--we live in a universe with an interesting property: energy flowing through a system tends to organize that system into greater complexity, producing emergent phenomena
(at the expense of greater disorder, or entropy, elsewhere).
Although simulacra are illusions, they are not "appearances," but "macroscopic emergent phenomena
Hazen (earth science, George Mason U.) synthesizes work from across numerous scientific disciplines in order to explain the theory of emergent phenomena
and the origins of life on earth to a non- specialist audience.
The study of complex systems and emergent phenomena
not only provides an indispensable conceptual framework for understanding a large number of processes, but totally gets rid of the idea of scientific activity as homogeneous and closed inside strict disciplinary separations.
For the project, the teacher and project staff developed a unit using StarLogo/T and NetLogo as representational tools to focus on the ideas of complexity, parallel processes, and emergent phenomena
. Several vignettes are presented to illustrate the implementation of the EMERGE curriculum and the students' use of the programming language.