morphine

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morphine

 [mor´fēn]
the principal and most active opium alkaloid, an opioid analgesic and respiratory depressant, usually used as the sulfate salt and administered orally, parenterally, or rectally. It is used as an analgesic for relief of severe pain, antitussive, adjunct to anesthesia, and adjunct to treatment of pulmonary edema caused by left ventricular failure. Its use carries with it the dangers of addiction (see drug dependence), as well as drug tolerance (the need for increasingly larger doses over time to achieve the desired effect). Since morphine is a powerful respiratory depressant, it should be withheld and the patient carefully assessed if the patient's respirations are less than 12 per minute.

mor·phine

(mōr'fēn, mōr-fēn'),
The major phenanthrene alkaloid of opium; it produces a combination of depression and excitation in the central nervous system and some peripheral tissues; predominance of either central stimulation or depression depends on the species and dose; repeated administration leads to the development of tolerance, physical dependence, and (if abused) psychic dependence. Used as an analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic.
[L. Morpheus, god of dreams or of sleep]

morphine

/mor·phine/ (mor´fēn) an opioid analgesic, the principal and most active alkaloid of opium; used as the sulfate or hydrochloride salt as an analgesic, antitussive, and as an adjunct to anesthesia or to treatment of pulmonary edema secondary to left ventricular failure.

morphine

(môr′fēn′)
n.
An alkaloid, C17H19NO3, extracted from opium and used in the form of its hydrated sulfate or hydrochloride salt to relieve moderate to severe pain. Also called morphia.

morphine

[môr′fēn]
Etymology: Gk, Morpheus, god of sleep
a white crystalline alkaloid derived from the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, the source of its principal pharmacological activity. Morphine acts on the central nervous system to produce both depression and euphoric stimulation, effects that are mediated through its stimulation of mu opioid receptors. Stimulation of mu receptors exerts effects that depress nerve impulse transmission. Even in small amounts morphine depresses the respiratory system. Mu receptors' activation in some instances inhibits the transmission of inhibitory impulses, thereby causing stimulation. Examples of this include the euphoric response and constriction of the pupils by the third cranial nerve. Morphine has a marked analgesic effect because of its stimulation of mu receptors in both the brain and spinal cord, and its principal therapeutic value is for the relief of moderate to severe pain. Morphine rarely provides total relief of pain, but in most cases it reduces the level of suffering. Patients with severe pain may become drowsy and relaxed but seldom achieve the sensation of euphoria associated with use of the drug. Morphine is often given parenterally because its rapid absorption following oral administration is followed by rapid first-pass metabolism to an inactive glucuronide (oral bioavailability ranges from 17% to 33%). Repeated use of morphine leads to tolerance, necessitating increased dosage levels to get the same degree of pain relief. See also morphine sulfate, morphine tartrate.

morphine

An opium alkaloid with potent analgesic effect that owes its narcotic properties to its unique aromatic ring structure.
 
Clinical findings
Euphoria, respiratory depression, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, decreased GI motility, increased risk of addiction.

Route
Parenteral, oral.
 
Effects
Blocks pain signals to brain and spinal cord.
 
Uses
Relieves severe acute and chronic pain; facilitates induction of anaesthesia.

morphine

Pain management An opium alkaloid with potent analgesic effect that owes its narcotic properties to its particular aromatic ring structure Route Parenteral, oral Effects Blocks pain signals to brain and spinal cord Uses Relieves severe acute and chronic pain; facilitates induction of anesthesia Clinical Euphoria, respiratory depression, drowsiness, N&V, ↓ GI motility, risk of addiction, miosis. See Controlled drug substances, Designer drugs, Heroin, Substance abuse.

mor·phine

(mōr'fēn)
The major phenanthrene alkaloid of opium, which contains 9-14% of anhydrous morphine. It produces a combination of depression and excitation in the central nervous system and some peripheral tissues; predominance of either central stimulation or depression depends on the species and dose; repeated administration leads to the development of tolerance, physical dependence, and (in instances of abuse) psychic dependence. Used as an analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic. Classified as a U.S. Schedule II controlled medication.
[L. Morpheus, god of dreams and sleep]

morphine

A powerful pain-killing and narcotic drug used to control persistent pain that cannot be relieved by lesser drugs. It can be taken by mouth or given by injection. Morphine has a valuable effect on the emotional response to pain and in relieving the anxiety associated with the contemplation of the implications of severe pain. It is a respiratory depressant and is never given in cases of head injury or in other conditions in which respiration may be prejudiced. When appropriately prescribed addiction is unlikely. The drug is on the WHO official list. Brand names are Morcap SR, MST Continus, MXL, Oramorph, Sevredol and Zomorph. The drug is also formulated with the anti-emetic cyclizine under the brand name Cyclimorph.

morphine

a white, crystalline, narcotic alkaloid drug obtained from opium. Formula: C17H19NO3

Morphine

Morphine is the naturally occurring opioid in the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. It is a powerful narcotic analgesic, and its primary clinical use is in the management of moderately severe to severe pain. After heroin, morphine has the greatest potential for addiction of all narcotic analgesics.
Mentioned in: Methadone

mor·phine

(mōr'fēn)
The major phenanthrene alkaloid of opium. Used as an analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic.
[L. Morpheus, god of dreams and sleep]

morphine (môr´fēn),

n an effective prescription analgesic narcotic. Street names include
M, white stuff, Miss Emma, hocus, and
monkey. Constricted pupils may be a sign of abuse.

morphine

the principal and most active opium alkaloid, a narcotic analgesic and respiratory depressant, usually used as morphine sulfate.

morphine substitutes
those used in veterinary medicine include meperidine, methadone, pentazocine lactate.
References in periodicals archive ?
Embeda can still be abused or misused by any of these routes, and such abuse or misuse can cause an overdose that may result in death.
EMBEDA is indicated for the management of moderate to severe pain when a continuous, around-the-clock opioid analgesic is needed for an extended period of time, said the company .
In the pharmaceutical area, the report examines how the drug Embeda holds out some hope for cutting down on the recreational and resale use of workers' compensation drugs since it loses all potency once it is ground up.
The company said that studies ALO-01-10-4005 and ALO-01-10-4004 were double-blind cross-over designed studies in non-dependent, recreational opioid users that compared subjective measures relating to abuse potential of crushed EMBEDA to crushed extended-release morphine sulphate and placebo following oral (study 4005) and intranasal (study 4004) administration.
Embeda is used for treating moderate to severe pain and contains morphine, but also the ingredient naltrexone, that neutralises the effect of the morphine if the pill is crushed or chewed.
While Flector Patch and Avinza are yet to gain traction in the pain management market, Embeda represents significant potential.
New agents such as Pfizers tanezumab, the first biologic to treat chronic pain, and Kings Embeda (morphine SR and naltrexone), the first abuse-deterrent opioid analgesic on the U.
While the recent approval and launch of Embeda was a major positive for King, we remain concerned about pipeline setbacks, increasing competition, generic threats and declining prescription trends.
Moreover, King faced several regulatory setbacks and has yet to gain approval for its key pipeline candidate, Embeda.
With combined sales of Remoxy (oxycodone controlled-release), Embeda (morphine extended-release and naltrexone) and the immediate-release opioid Acurox (oxycodone and niacin) forecast to generate around $1 billion per annum by 2018.