Venom from spitting elapids
contains 67-73% three finger toxins (3FTXs), 22-30% phospholipases [A.sub.2] (PL[A.sub.2]), 2.1% snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), and minor quantities of nucleotidases and cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) (Hus et al.
WSG has a similar structure to the [alpha]-chain of the PLIs derived from Australian elapid
serum and was found to interact with NN-XIa-[PLA.sub.2], but the mechanism currently remains unknown .
A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid
. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites.
Four major clades of advanced snakes were recognized, which include viperids, elapids
, colubrids, and Atractaspis.
Male combat in American colubrid snakes with remarks on combat in other colubrid and elapid
The editors rejected her article on the grounds that its conclusion was analytically false and, instead, accepted a article showing that her taxon included many terrestrial Australian elapids
Indeed, this tree assumes monophyly between 18 genera of colubrids, elapids
, and viperids when it turns out to be not the case (Bogert 1943; Underwood 1967; McDowell 1969; Voris 1977; Cadle and Gorman 1981; Schwaner et al.
Venom from the W.aegyptia and Pseudo cerastes persicus fieldi have been found to have the highest hemolytic activity of the elapids
and vipers and also possessed the highest phospholipase A2 activity (El-Hakim et al., 2008).
Other than research on elapids
in southeastern Australia (Webb and Shine, 1998; Webb et al., 2004), research on thermal ecology of small, primarily nocturnal snakes is limited.
Death adders (Acanthophis) are terrestrial elapids
who superficially resemble vipers.
DEATH ADDER Unlike other elapids
, this stocky Australian snake has long-hinged fangs that fold back against the roof of the mouth within a sheath of skin.
Do all elapids
belong to the same kingdom, phylum, and class?