* Address correspondence to this author at: Einthoven
Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Department of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O.
wrongly acknowledged that Waller had introduced the name "electrocardiogram", but probably introduced it himself (3).
An ECG lead records the difference in electrical potential between a negative and positive electrode placed at specific locations on the body surface (Einthoven
, 1902; Graetunger, Packard, & Graybiel, 1951).
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Type II lead placement was used for ECG measurement.
, the father of electrocardiography, discovered these electrical events of the heart could be measured by applying electrodes to the surface of the body.
Documentation of ischemia-induced electrocardiographic ST segment changes, which form the basis of exercise stress testing, dates to the beginning of this century, when Einthoven
produced an electrocardiogram that revealed postexercise ST depressions. Since Feil and Siegel performed what is generally considered the earliest exercise stress test in 1928 by reproducing ST-T wave changes consistent with ischemia, the exercise stress test has become an essential procedure for diagnosing coronary artery disease.
had developed methods for detecting the rise and fall of electric potentials involved in the heartbeat and devised the electrocardiogram (see 1903).
The Dutch medical profession that gave the world Boerhave's clinical teachings, Jacobus Bontius's discovery of the dietary causes of beri-beri, Donders's physiology of the eye and scientific correction of errors of refraction, Einthoven
's electrocardiography, and Wenckebach's analysis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, now exerts itself in finding more and more reasons, opportunities, and ways to put sick people, and sick children, to death, or to let them die.
(e) Simulated ECG (Einthoven
lead I) with ST elevation using the torso mo del displayed in (b).
coined the term electrocardiogram in 1893.