The reduction of core area is directly related to the shape of a fragment since more irregular fragments are subjected to more matrix intervention and less protection of the interior environment, leaving the core more exposed to edge effects
Only a few studies have been conducted on the impacts of edge effects
on birds in tropical rain forests (Varasteh et al., 2010; Rosli and Zakaria, 2011; Rosli et al., 2012) or on the effects of forest habitat fragmentation on bird distribution and diversity (Yahner, 2000; Maina, 2002).
The relationship between population density and distance from habitat edge varied between habitat types, indicating declining densities as distance into the cropland matrix increased and minimal edge effects
in forest habitat.
are a spatial phenomenon per se (Ewers and Didham 2006a); however, there are other underlying spatial effects on edge ecology.
As one might have surmised, edge effects
still appear on the limits of the surface if the depth of the profile is not sufficient (6 [micro]m).
This was intended to give the image a better edge effect
on epiphytic lichens in managed black spruce forest of Eastern North America.
The perimeter and the perimeter-area relationship are metrics that quantify and qualify the fragments in relation to the edge effect
, which is an important aspect studied by ecological researchers because it may not guarantee the ecological stability of the fragment (VOLOTAO, 1998).
Riverkeeper had been especially concerned about habitat fragmentation, edge effects
and deforestation, as well as hydrology impacts related to wetlands and groundwater.