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A phylum of Metazoa that includes starfish, sea urchins, sea lilies, and other classes. All but the sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) are basically radially symmetrical and most possess a calcareous endoskeleton with external spines. They inhabit the sea bottom, some near shore, others in deep water.
[echino- + G. derma, skin]
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References in periodicals archive ?
Biological studies on the Chilean sea-urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina) (Echinodermata; Echinoidea).
Peptidergic and serotonergic immunoreactivity in the metamorphosing ophiopluteus of Ophiactis resiliens (Echinodermata. Ophiuroidea).
New records of brittle stars from French Guiana: Ophiactis savignyi and the alien species Ophiothela mirabilis (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea).
Assessment of the sea cucumber (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) as potential fishery resource in Banco Chinchorro, Quintana roo, Mexico.
Gonadal growth and reproduction in the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck 1816) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in southern Spain.
Amin (2012b).Embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of the tropical sea Urchin,Salmacissphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).
Roper, "The role of asterina stellifera (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) as a predator in a rocky intertidal community in southern Brazil," Zoologia, vol.
Furthermore, holothurian (sea cucumber) among echinodermata is considered as a natural resource of sulfated polysaccharides.