(47) Several other ERG rearrangements have been reported in prostate cancer, including rearrangements involving the ETS family members ETV1 (7p21.2) and ETV4
(17q21) as well as the RAF kinase gene.
Gene rearrangements commonly found in hematologic malignancies were rarely reported in solid tumors until the identification of a fusion gene in PCa, involving TMPRSS2 and members of the ETS transcription factor family(ETV1, ETV2, ETV4
, and ERG) (7).
The principle under which TVSS (or ETV4
, its version for infants; see Bach-y-Rita & Sampaio, 1995; Sampaio, 1994; 2000) operates entails the collection of visual information from a micro video camera (or, alternatively, from a computer monitor) and transforming it into low-intensity electrotactile stimulation patterns (producing a feeling of pressure or vibration) that can be felt on the skin via a 96-microelectrode tactile interface.
The recurrent chromosomal rearrangements lead to a fusion of the androgen-responsive promoter elements of the TMPRSS2 gene (21q22) to 1 of 3 members of the ETS transcription factor family: ERG, ETV1,or ETV4
, located at bands 21q22, 7p21, and 17q21, respectively.
A significant role for the ETS gene family, which encodes transcription factors in prostate cancer, was recently discovered by using a novel bioinformatics approach known as COPA (cancer outlier profile analysis) (86) that identified the oncogenes ERG (21q22.2), ETV1 (7p21.2), ETV4
(17q21), and ETV5 (3q27) as very highly expressed in a subset of prostate cancers on the basis of a large set of microarray data.