EPHA4


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EPHA4

A gene on chromosome 2q36.1 that encodes a member of the ephrin-A receptor subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, which promiscuously bind membrane-bound ephrin-A family ligands residing on adjacent cells, leading to contact-dependent bidirectional signalling into neighbouring cells. EPHA4 mediates developmental events, especially in the nervous system, controlling different steps of axonal guidance (e.g., establishing corticospinal projections) and possibly also controlling segregation of motor and sensory axons during neuromuscular circuit development. It interacts with CDK5, CDK5R1, CHN1, NGEF and SIPA1L1.
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Moreover, we revealed that inhibition of erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A4 (EphA4), a target of miR-10a, stimulated the proliferation of hepatocytes through promotion of cell cycle.
Eymard-Pierre et al., "De novo 2q36.1q36.3 interstitial deletion involving the PAX3 and EPHA4 genes in a fetus with spina bifida and cleft palate," Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology, vol.
When coupled with a UMMS study published last month in Nature identifying a new ALS gene (profilin-1) that also works in conjunction with EphA4, these findings point to a new molecular pathway in neurons that is directly related to ALS susceptibility and severity.
Several years ago an EphA4 mutant was created whereby the EphA4 protein was removed or 'knocked out' of the mouse genome.
Previous studies have demonstrated that the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase and its two ligands, ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A5, are expressed in complicated patterns during axon outgrowth to the avian hindlimb.
Ephrin acts on EphA4 on PC dendrites, leading to a signaling process, restricted to the proximal dendrites, that inactivates integrins or focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in the spines, causing spine retraction (Figure 1) [115].
EphA1, EphA4, and EphA7 are expressed at the crypt bottom, while EphA2, EphA5, and the ephrin-A1 ligand are enriched at the upper colonic crypts [20].
miR-93 promotes the axon growth of spinal cord neurons by targeting to EphA4 [40].
In an association study of EPHA4 polymorphism with swine reproductive traits, it was revealed that the EPHA4 gene was significantly associated with litter size in pigs.
Among astrocyte-neuron adhesion molecules that could be regulated by activity and potentially localized at synapses the best candidate is the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase that is enriched in dendritic spines of hippocampal pyramidal neurons [74] (reviewed in [75]).
The EphA4 level increased in the Saline (122.16%) and PEDF (127.93%) groups compared to Sham (P < 0.01), and no changes were observed in protein levels of the receptors EphA2, A3, A5, and A7 (Figure 7(a)).