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A gene on chromosome 1q36 that encodes a member of the ephrin-A receptor subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, which promiscuously bind membrane-bound ephrin-A family ligands residing on adjacent cells, leading to contact-dependent bidirectional signalling into neighbouring cells. Once activated by the ligand ephrin-A1 (EFNA1), it regulates cell adhesion and differentiation through DSG1/desmoglein-1 and inhibition of the ERK1/ERK2 (MAPK3/MAPK1, respectively) signalling pathway. It may participate in UV radiation-induced apoptosis and have a ligand-independent stimulatory effect on chemotactic cell migration.

During development, EPHA2 may function in distinctive aspects of pattern formation and development of several foetal tissues, such as angiogenesis, early hindbrain development and epithelial proliferation, and branching morphogenesis during mammary gland development. It is thought to regulate lens fibre cells’ shape and interactions and to be important for lens transparency development and maintenance. With ephrin-A2 (EFNA2), it may play a role in bone remodelling by regulating osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis.

EPHA2 interacts with ACP1, ANKS1A, ARHGEF16, CLDN4, DOCK4, ELMO2, INPPL1, PIK3R1, PIK3R2, PIK3R3, PTK2/FAK1, PTPN11, SLA, VAV2, and VAV3. 

Molecular pathology
Defects in EPHA2 cause cataract cortical age-related type 2 (age-related cataract cortical type 2) and cataract posterior polar type 1 (posterior polar cataracts type 2).
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Differential regulation of epha2 in normal and malignant cells.
"Targeting EphA2 with our vaccine platform demonstrates the tremendous potential for our therapeutic vaccine approach," said Stephen T.
Furthermore, we have recently found a loss of EphB6 expression in malignant melanomas (37), whereas other receptors, such as EphA2, and ligands, such as ephrin-B2, are up-regulated (6, 7).
Kakarla et al., "T cells redirected to EphA2 for the immunotherapy of glioblastoma," Molecular Therapy, vol.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets were designed to sequence the first exons of MAF, EPHA2 , and NHS genes not covered in targeted sequencing, as well as to analyze the segregation of the GJA8 deletion in the family [Supplementary Table 1].
Gerber et al., "Disruption of EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase leads to increased susceptibility to carcinogenesis in mouse skin," Cancer Research, vol.
Expression of the EphA2 protein occurs naturally in human and mice.
revealed that use of activating antibodies against EphA2, another member of Eph family overexpressed in MDA-MB-231 cell line, led to inhibition of cell growth after reaching confluence as well as inhibiting tubular formation on matrigel [19].
Tatsumi et al., "EphA2 as a glioma-associated antigen: a novel target for glioma vaccines," Neoplasia, vol.
Washington, July 30 (ANI): Using a protein, called EphA2, researchers at the University of Texas M.
Debinski, "A novel, potent, and specific ephrinA1-based cytotoxin against EphA2 receptor-expressing tumor cells," Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol.
The glioma-specific antigens used in recent preclinical or clinical studies showing potent antiglioma effect include IL-13R[alpha]2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII), and erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma A2 (EphA2) [19-22, 51].